Europe: Maintaining capability amid austerity; Future agendas; Defence economics
France: Rapid reaction in Mali; The 2013 Livre Blanc; Defence budgeting; Policy implementation
United Kingdom: Cyber capability; Armed services; Future challenges; Defence economics

Maintaining capability amid austerity

Since the economic and financial crisis hit Europe in 2008, the capability challenge facing European nations has been out in the open and increasingly well understood by NATO and EU member states: there will be a growing gap between security demand and capability supply. Not least because of the re-orientation of US defence policy towards the Asia-Pacific, European governments will need to assume a greater share of the burden for international security, particularly in Europe’s fragile vicinity to the south and the east, at a time when defence spending is shrinking. The multinational level of ambition, as expressed in EU and NATO strategic guidance, has remained largely unchanged, while leaders recognise that they face an increasingly complex security environment. Syria also exposed another side to the capability challenge: the need for governments to define a convincing narrative for the continued use of armed forces in crisis management.

NATO’s ‘smart defence’ initiative and the EU’s equipment pooling and sharing approach, both designed to increase systematic and closer defence cooperation among the member states of these organisations, continue to be plagued by patchy progress. In July 2013, NATO allies completed one of 29 multinational smart-defence projects, developing a logistics partnership on helicopter maintenance in Afghanistan (under US leadership): the first project both launched and completed after the May 2012 Chicago Summit. The project allows allies to pool spare parts, tools and technicians to generate cost savings and reduce repair time for helicopters. Another important NATO endeavour dating back to the 2012 summit and slowly taking shape is the Connected Forces Initiative (CFI). Although NATO allies have made significant progress on interoperability as a result of operations, including those in Afghanistan, this progress will be difficult to maintain in the face of decreasing spending and the lower operational tempo many observers expect following the 2014 ISAF drawdown.

Attempts to revitalise the NATO Response Force (NRF) and a renewed focus on high-visibility live exercises will play a key part in CFI implementation. In the post-ISAF environment, the CFI is likely to concentrate on combat effectiveness, by focusing on training and exercises in particular. In this context, NATO Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT), General Jean-Paul Paloméros, explained the purpose of the CFI in September 2013 as ‘[maintaining] military effectiveness through the preservation of our readiness and interoperability by exercising and training together and with partners’. The CFI implementation plan under development in 2013 includes a training concept for 2015–20 and recommendations on a series of exercises to be conducted from 2016–20. NATO also plans to conduct a high-visibility exercise in 2015. In this context, the NRF – a rapid-reaction formation announced in 2002 and consisting of a command-and-control element from the NATO Command Structure, a 13,000-strong Immediate Response Force (IRF), and a Response Forces Pool to supplement the IRF when necessary – is expected to regain prominence after 2014.

From the national level downward, European defence adjustments continue to take place, however, and 2013 saw key announcements from France and the Netherlands to this effect. The overdue French White Paper on Defence and National Security, published in April 2013, announced a budget freeze at €31.4bn (US$41.7bn) for three years, implying real-terms decreases in spending. The number of forces to be available for sustainable deployment will be reduced from 30,000 to 15,000. In terms of geographic focus, France will concentrate on Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. The paper amounts to a careful revision of France’s overall ambitions in light of budgetary pressure (see p. 66).

In September 2013, the Dutch government published a document entitled ‘In the Interest of the Netherlands’, setting out major decisions on the future of the armed forces. In the paper, the government announced budget cuts in the years up to 2018 – some 2,400 military and civilian posts will be lost. As in the case of France, the personnel reductions come in addition to earlier cuts to the force structure announced in previous years. While insisting the spectrum of tasks covered by the armed forces will remain unchanged, the paper outlines that contributions to international operations will in future be of shorter duration and smaller in size. In an attempt to maintain the ability to improve future capabilities, the government ‘will continue to work towards bringing its annual investment percentage back up to 20%’ of the defence budget. Notable decisions include the replacement of F-16s with F-35s, beginning in 2019, and accelerated work towards establishing a cyber command.

Future agendas

A less well-understood aspect of the capability challenge is the need to define a convincing narrative for the continued use of armed forces in international crisis management. The debate over what to do regarding the Syrian conflict demonstrated that two decades of continuous and simultaneous deployments have left electorates across Europe unsure of the success and necessity of such action. Both the EU and NATO will likely have to tackle this issue in their upcoming 2013 and 2014 summits. If governments fail to define a forward-looking agenda and instead become embroiled in rehearsing the now well-understood difficulties of capability generation and provision, expectations will likely not be met.

NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen argued during a speech in Brussels, on 19 September 2013, that ‘NATO remains an essential source of stability in an unpredictable world’. At the same time, he warned that budget cuts were threatening European member states’ ability to shape the security environment: ‘the fact is that if the current trend continues, if we see continued declining defence budgets, then one day the Europeans will not be able to participate in international crisis management as we saw it in Libya, and the vacuum Europe leaves behind will be filled by the other powers in the world, for instance the emerging powers that actually invest more and more in defence and security, and eventually it means that Europe will lose influence on the international scene’.

Catherine Ashton, EU High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, argued in her July 2013 interim report on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) that ‘Europe faces rising security challenges, within a changing strategic context, while the financial crisis is increasingly affecting its security and defence capability. These developments warrant a strategic debate among heads of state and government’.

NATO’s 2014 summit agenda will be heavily focused on the drawdown in Afghanistan and transition there to an assistance and mentoring mission. Meanwhile, the European Council on security and defence (19–20 December 2013) will likely be a primary means of articulating the strategic debate in the EU. Leaders will seek to address the effectiveness, visibility and impact of the CSDP; boosting capability development; and strengthening the European defence industry. Senior officials in both NATO and the EU have adopted a ‘defence matters’ discourse, picking up on the need for a stronger strategic narrative. Ideas on how to move forward on this agenda, however, remained scarce.

In the EU context, one player trying to expand its security- and defence-related role is the European Commission. The commission is attempting to achieve this through the use of EU-level regulations. The European defence-equipment market has remained largely unaffected by EU single-market principles, instead feeding off and perpetuating the economic distortions and inefficiencies of the European defence-industrial base. This has been enabled by governments’ use of Article 346 of the Treaty of Lisbon (previously Article 296 of the Maastricht Treaty), which was intended to provide member states with the ability to circumvent the rules of the single market and European procurement law in exceptional cases where national-security considerations took precedence. Instead, recourse to Article 346 became standard practice for defence procurement, with member states invoking essential national-security interests as a matter of course.

The commission has for a number of years tried to build an economic case for making the defence-equipment market more efficient by opening it up to competition, based on the savings member-state governments could expect to generate from lower equipment prices. In July 2013, the commission outlined a strategy and action plan built on four core elements. The first deals with further deepening the internal EU market for defence and increasing its efficiency. This objective implies that market distortions – such as offsets, merger controls and state aid for industry – are tackled. Furthermore, security of supply for goods traded within the internal market is to be increased through new licensing systems. The second element is to increase the competitiveness of the European defence-industrial base through greater standardisation, common certification and fostering regional clusters of specialisation. The third is based on increased exploitation of the synergies arising from civil-military dual-use research and innovation. Finally, the commission has suggested that it might be time to introduce EU-owned dual-use capabilities to complement national assets.

Unsurprisingly, this action plan is viewed with scepticism and some direct opposition by several member governments. UK Secretary of State for Defence Philip Hammond voiced his criticism of the commission’s growing role in regulating the defence market in September 2013, saying that ‘interference in the export of defence equipment and government-to-government defence sales, or the creation of … “specific European standards for military products” represent a significant potential extension of the Commission’s role and are not necessarily in the UK defence industry’s best interests – and we will resist them’.

Despite suspicion from national capitals, the commission had been implementing elements of its strategy for several years before the 2013 publication of the document. Notably, two directives entered into force in 2009, which amount to significant regulatory reform in the defence market. The Defence Procurement Directive (Directive 2009/81/EC) deals specifically with goods and services related to security and defence. Covering contracts above a certain value, the directive establishes a principle of non-discriminatory competition and obligation to award contracts on the basis of price and performance. It also seeks to limit the use of offsets, which are required by some EU member states when they procure defence services and goods from a foreign supplier. Crucially, the directive does not apply to cooperative or collaborative procurement programmes. Although several member states were late in transposing it into national law, this process was completed in March 2013.

The second piece of EU-introduced legislation, the Directive on Transfers of Defence Related Products (Directive 2009/43/EC) provides a new licensing system for intra-EU exports, distinguishing between general, global and individual licences. Under this framework, pre-approved licences become the norm for transfers within the EU and individual licences are only used in particular instances, including one-time transfers and the protection, in individual cases, of member states’ essential security interests. These transfer regulations should simultaneously improve security of defence-product supply within the EU and significantly reduce the bureaucratic burden related to transfers among member states.

Although several capitals attest to changing purchasing practices to comply with the 2009 directives, it is still too early to assess their full impact. Poland’s plans, announced in May 2013, to spend some US$43bn over the coming ten years on procurement provided ample cause for commission officials to worry about member governments’ willingness to take the directives seriously. Minister of National Defence Tomasz Siemoniak stressed that Poland would heavily favour local companies and bidders offering technology transfers as well as offsets: ‘for us, an optimal result is to develop these big contracts in a way that we are also in the kitchen, that our engineers and scientists are taking part in an equal way. Whoever promises us a greater share of technology transfer and work in Poland will be favoured’. These are exactly the kind of market distortions EU-level emerging defence regulation seeks to avoid. Poland, buoyed by strong economic growth, has been one of the few countries in Europe able to significantly increase its spending. Measured in constant 2010 prices/exchange rates, Poland increased its defence spending by over 22% between 2006 and 2010. Despite such setbacks, the commission seems determined to introduce single-market elements into the European defence-equipment sector.

DEFENCE ECONOMICS

Regional macroeconomics

Protracted efforts by public and private sectors across Europe to deleverage – reduce debt liabilities – have meant that, five years after the 2008 financial crisis began, European growth generally remains negative or anaemic, with current expenditures reduced in order to pay down debt. The second quarter of 2013 saw economic activity in the eurozone return to the black, but this followed 18 months of recession. Output gaps remain large across the region, while high unemployment and fiscal retrenchment remain the norm for most countries. According to the IMF, only six out of 36 European states managed to run primary budget surpluses in any year since 2008, while for nearly half of them unemployment was projected to remain at double-digit levels in 2013. Unemployment in the eurozone as a whole was estimated at 12.3% in 2013. This economic stagnation notwithstanding, the financial turmoil that had affected the region since 2008 eased in 2013. In large measure, this was the product of European Central Bank (ECB) President Mario Draghi’s pledge in July 2012 to do ‘whatever it takes’ to preserve the euro. The ECB subsequently announced, in September 2012, that it would consider outright monetary transactions, whereby it would purchase government securities of countries in adjustment or precautionary programmes with the European Financial Stability Facility or the European Stability Mechanism. This possible supply of potentially unlimited quantities of liquidity markedly reduced instability in financial markets in the final quarter of 2012, as risk premiums in bank and sovereign-debt markets fell sharply, and by early 2013 European equity and bond markets had risen, in some cases by as much as 20%. However, private-sector financing costs remained high due to bank balance-sheet consolidation and persistent weak demand throughout the region. Overall, in 2013 the eurozone was projected by the IMF to contract by 0.4%, while Europe as a whole was expected to only grow by 0.3%.

Map 1 Europe Regional Defence Spending1

Sub-regional groupings referred to in defence economics text: Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland), Northern Europe (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden), Southern Europe (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain), Southeastern Europe (Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey), the Balkans (Albania, Bosnia–Herzegovina, Croatia, FYROM, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia) and Western Europe (Belgium, France, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom). /952.png

Regional defence spending

As discussed in The Military Balance 2013 (pp. 92–6), the necessity of fiscal retrenchment has meant that European countries have had to reconsider the level of resources allocated towards defence. Between 2010 and 2011, nominal European defence-spending levels rose by 3.2%, from US$287bn to US$296.2bn, but then fell by 6.7% to US$276.3bn in 2012. There was a slight increase in nominal spending levels of 1.0% in 2013. However, the scale of these fluctuations was largely the product of exchange-rate volatility between the crisis-hit euro and the dollar. On average, the euro appreciated by 5% in 2011 before depreciating strongly by 8% in 2012, resulting in an inflated dollar total in 2011 and a correspondingly reduced dollar total in 2012. Discounting for such exchange-rate effects, as well as for inflation, presents a clearer perspective of the downward trajectory in European defence outlays. In 2013, real defence spending fell in more than half (57%) of European states, slightly less than the 70% and 65% of states that reduced real-terms defence outlays in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Since 2010, real defence spending has declined at a compound annual growth rate of 1.9%, with reductions of 3.0% in 2011, 2.2% in 2012 and 2.4% in 2013. Overall, real defence-spending levels in 2013 were 7.4% lower than in 2010.

Although the overall regional spending trend is negative, there has been a degree of sub-regional variation in the extent of defence austerity. As shown in Figure 4, by far the largest reductions in sub-regional defence outlays have occurred in Southern Europe and the Balkans. In both of these sub-regions, aggregate spending fell in real terms by more than one-fifth between 2010 and 2013. Particularly large reductions in these regions were seen in Greece (-42%), Slovenia (-39.2%), Hungary (-21%), Spain (-19.6%) and Italy (-15.8%). A smaller – though not insignificant – sub-regional reduction of 7.4% was also seen in Western Europe, as spending declined by 8–12% in Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK; while smaller reductions of 3–5% occurred in Belgium and France. Real spending levels remained relatively unchanged between 2010 and 2013 in Central Europe, although the aggregate figures mask significant reductions in the Czech Republic (-16%), Hungary (-21%), and, to a lesser extent, Slovakia (-6.5%). These were offset by the large increase in Polish defence spending. Real defence outlays increased in only ten out of 37 states, including Poland (14.8%), Bulgaria (10.2%), Norway (9.1%) and Turkey (5.4%).

Western Europe continues to dominate regional spending totals (see Figure 5), accounting for just under half (44.2%) of all regional outlays, while Central Europe accounted for a further 23.3%. Together, Western and Central Europe made up two-thirds of the 2013 European total, or some US$187bn. Of the remaining third, Southern Europe accounted for half of this (or 16% of total European outlays), with the other half taken up in roughly equal parts by Northern Europe (8.3% of the European total) and Southeastern Europe (Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, at 7.3%). The Balkans accounted for less than 1% of regional spending. Overall, since 2010, real reductions in NATO European countries have fallen at a faster pace than non-NATO European states, with the former witnessing defence spending contract at an average rate of 2.6% per annum, and the latter at 1.7% per annum. In general, defence spending in Europe has been cut at a slightly faster rate than the contraction in GDP across the region; defence spending as a proportion of regional GDP has fallen steadily, from 1.58% in 2010 to 1.43% in 2013.

Figure 4 Europe Real Defence Spending Changes 2010–13 by Sub-Region (%)
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Figure 5 Europe Defence Spending 2013 by Country
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Regional defence-spending composition

Since the 2008 crisis, there has been concern in Western states about the effect that defence austerity could have on the size, structure and capability of armed forces in Europe. Only three out of 26 NATO European states (Greece, Estonia and the UK) spend more than the NATO target of 2% of GDP on defence. Additionally, a large proportion of European defence outlays tend to be allocated to military pensions, wages and salaries, rather than on funding for training, operational readiness and capital investments in areas such as equipment acquisition and modernisation. Figure 7 depicts (on the vertical axis) the proportion of defence spending that states in the region allocated to personnel-related outlays in 2012 – principally on salaries, benefits and pensions. The horizontal axis indicates the size of states’ defence budgets in dollars. As indicated, personnel-related expenses accounted for more than half of total defence outlays in 25 out of 35 states analy­sed. Personnel costs exceeded 40% of total defence outlays in 30 out of 35 states. On average, states allocated 60% of defence spending to personnel-related outlays. This proportion varied to some extent across sub-regions – ranging from an average of about 55% of defence outlays in Western Europe and Central Europe to 70.3% and 73.5% of outlays in the Balkans and Southern Europe respectively. That is, on average, nearly three-quarters of military spending in Southern Europe in 2012 was allocated to personnel costs. (Note: the average proportion allocated to personnel spending in 2012 was lowest in Northern Europe (43.5%), but this is an underestimate due to gaps in the dataset relating to the exclusion of military pensions as part of defence-budget totals. As such, the actual proportion for this sub-region is almost certainly higher.) Particularly high personnel spending (above 75% of the total budget) occurred in nine out of 35 states analysed, including Greece, Portugal and Italy.

Figure 6 Europe Regional Defence Expenditure as % of GDP
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The defence austerity programmes that followed the 2008 financial crash are likely to have played a role in increasing the proportion of defence budgets allocated to personnel expenses in some European states, particularly where the balance of cuts has been weighted towards reducing non-personnel expenditures, such as lower levels of equipment procurement and maintenance, research and development, base closures and reduced military-construction activities. For example, according to NATO statistics, between 2007 and 2011, the proportion of defence spending allocated to personnel-related costs rose by more than 20% in Spain, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia and Lithuania – all of which were also hard hit by the financial crisis. However, in other European states, the proportion of defence spending allocated to personnel in 2011 and 2012 remained broadly constant between the pre- and post-crisis periods. This is the case in Portugal and Italy, where the personnel-spending proportion of the budget in 2011 has remained relatively in line with the proportion allocated in 2007 (prior to onset of the crisis), according to NATO data. In a small number of European states – notably Greece, Germany, France, Belgium and the UK – the proportion allocated to personnel costs has actually fallen from 2007 levels. For example, according to NATO statistics, personnel-related spending in France fell from 57.1% of the defence budget to 49.4% in 2011, while in Greece it fell from 79.5% to 73.9% over the same period. (Note: Figure 7 also demonstrates that, in general, the higher the defence budget, the lower the proportion of defence spending allocated to personnel costs (see downward sloping line in Figure 7).)

Figure 7 Military Personnel-Related Defence Spending in Europe in 2012
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FRANCE

2013 was an important year for French defence policy. It began with the defence ministry initiating a rapid military deployment to Mali in the face of an imminent threat to the Malian government. The end of the year, meanwhile, was likely to see many military staff occupied with the December 2013 European Council on security and defence, to which France’s contribution would be central. In late summer, France, together with the United States, played a high-profile role in the crisis over the use of chemical weapons in Syria, advocating a robust policy, including the threat of military force in response to the Syrian government’s use of these weapons, and to dissuade it from doing so again. In the end, a Russian initiative to disarm the Assad regime of its chemical arsenal led to the threat of military force receding.

Amid ongoing operational deployments, contingency planning and one sharp combat mission, the government issued a new White Paper on Defence and National Security. The last paper was issued in 2008, so this document was anticipated not only for its assessment of France’s current and future strategic environment but also, for instance, for detail on the degree to which the effects of the financial crisis would lead to adjustments in force structures and procurements. France was able to gather lessons not only from recent operational activities but also from other states’ post-2008 defence reviews, and these factors arguably contributed to some of the key findings in the paper on force packages and capability requirements, as well as on wider themes such as retaining both the ability to act autonomously and a full spectrum of military capabilities.

Given the need for fiscal consolidation, the choices facing the Hollande administration over allocating funds were unpalatable. One was to sacrifice major programmes; the other was to reduce equipment numbers across all three services. The later ‘Loi de Programmation Militaire’ (LPM), the document whereby the defence ministry allocated funds to match the priorities laid out in the White Paper, focused on the latter, aiming to balance strategic priorities with financial strictures, but in such a way that major defence reductions were avoided. Notably, France decided not to cut a capability, for instance in the way that the UK had done in its 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR), when it relinquished carrier strike capability until new vessels, and aircraft, came into service.

Rapid reaction in Mali

Throughout 2012, the developing crisis in Mali had been closely monitored by French military planners, and an air-support mission for the Malian army and/or African Union forces had been in preparation since October. The decision to launch Opération Serval was taken on 10 January after an urgent request from Mali’s interim president, Dioncounda Traoré, who was facing a surge towards the capital, Bamako, by hundreds of jihadist armoured vehicles, which had reached the strategically important towns of Mopti and Ségou. French combat helicopters from special forces based in Burkina Faso engaged ground targets, joined shortly afterwards by Mirage 2000D combat aircraft based in Chad, and the advance was rapidly thwarted. Light armour from the French contingent in Côte d’Ivoire was also deployed to Mali.

France had already developed military plans for deployment to Mali, with the goal of eventually supporting African Union-led forces and the planned EU Training Mission (EUTM) when these missions were established. These plans were quickly adapted; importantly, they meant that French forces could implement well-prepared strategies relating to areas such as tactical mobility and logistics support. Although the expectation in Paris was always that ground forces would deploy in relation to these support missions, the immediate threat to Bamako, and the parlous state of the Malian army, led to rapid deployment. In the second half of January 2013, some 4,500 troops were airlifted to Mali, where they succeeded in driving the rebels back to their northern desert redoubts. They were assisted by Rafale combat aircraft making the 2,500-mile, nine-hour flight from bases in eastern France. The northern towns of Gao, Timbuktu and Kidal were all cleared of jihadist forces by February and many French troops were repatriated by April. Nonetheless, some 2,800 troops remained on Opération Serval as of October; some of these troops also deployed on occasion as operational assistance detachments, along with Malian battalions newly trained by the EUTM. Although intermittent and mostly low-level jihadist activity continued, Mali’s presidential elections passed in July and August without major incident, while parliamentary elections were due in November.

The French intervention was impressive for the speed with which contingency planning was activated and adapted; its rapid entry into theatre and establishment of reliable logistics corridors; and also the combat effectiveness of the deployed French troops. France’s pre-positioned forces in the region, and those on regional operations, proved vital, as did the local knowledge that both these forces, and planners back home, had accumulated. However, during Opération Serval’s main operational phase, France was dependent on European, Canadian and US support assets for some key tasks, mainly strategic lift, air-to-air refuelling, logistics and intelligence. This support was important not so much because of its volume, although that of course helped, but because of its immediacy: it enabled French forces to maintain a high operational tempo – crucial given the ground they had to cover, as well as a desire not to let jihadist forces regroup. There was also awareness in Paris of France’s limited stocks of MALE UAVs, highlighted in Mali where persistent intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) was of particular utility. The UK’s Royal Air Force (RAF) deployed one of its Sentinel R1 aircraft to Senegal to assist operations, fitted with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) systems. Perhaps it was little surprise, therefore, when the US Defence Security Cooperation Agency in June issued notification of an intended French purchase of 16 Reaper UAVs, for US$1.6bn, with the possible sale including 40 SAR/GMTI systems. Mali has, meanwhile, requested the establishment of a permanent French base in the country – a proposal being considered by Paris.

Map 2 France: Selected Deployments in Africa

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The 2013 Livre Blanc

The long-awaited White Paper on Defence and National Security assessed France’s threat environment, strategic options and likely force requirements, in light of financial realities. It envisaged three types of threat: power-based threats (menaces de la force) emanating probably from Asia or from WMD proliferation; risks emanating from weak or failing states, above all in Africa, which are unable to exercise sovereignty, control their borders or stem migratory flows (Africa emerges in the paper as an area of ever-increasing strategic importance); and risks deriving from globalisation, such as cyber attacks, terrorism and access to, and free flow of, resources.

These threats gave rise to four main strategic priorities. The first is territorial protection, involving defence against external aggression, counter-terrorism and the protection of French citizens around the world. The second concerns collective guarantees for the security of Europe and the North Atlantic area, presented as inseparable from national defence. The White Paper discussed the relationship between France and both NATO and the EU’s CSDP. France intended to play a leading and active role in NATO, but a pitch was also made for the relaunch of the EU’s defence and security project. Later, the document placed this in the context of the financial crisis and the US rebalance to the Asia-Pacific. France called for this revitalisation of European defence to be enshrined by the commission, arguing that it would compensate for the EU’s inadequacies in terms of external operations; foster development around pooling and sharing of the most essential military capabilities for the most plausible operations; and encourage consolidation of the European defence industry. The third strategic priority is stabilisation of Europe’s neighbourhood. In the context of the US rebalance to the Asia-Pacific, Paris considers that Europeans no longer have any alternative but to consider their neighbourhood as a major strategic priority that they must manage, and for which they have to take responsibility. The fourth priority is therefore a French (and European) contribution to the stability of the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. France intends to prioritise this area (it already has a base in Abu Dhabi) in partnership with other international actors.

There are three key areas of expansion. Intelligence, which was already prioritised in the 2008 White Paper, and which has been brought more closely into focus in Libya and Mali, will be expanded, mainly through UAVs and an increased budget for the space domain. Special forces, whose role in Libya and Mali was also crucial, will be expanded. Finally, cyber defences will grow significantly. A major cyber attack will henceforth be considered an act of war and considerable new resources will be committed to an ‘offensive cyber capacity’. Military cyber capacity is being stepped up with the recruitment of several hundred specialists and the creation of a dedicated and centralised operational command chain.

The White Paper also introduced a change on the military strategic level. Before 2013, France’s armed forces were, it says, primarily organised on the basis of a potential high-intensity conflict with ‘state-led forces of an equivalent level’. The 2013 White Paper instead distinguishes between ‘coercive operations’, in which a state-level armed force is the likely adversary, and crisis-management operations. Together with the overall strategic context, as discussed in the White Paper, these led to four principles which inform military strategy. The first is strategic autonomy. This ‘must allow France to take the initiative in operations’ and, where necessary, operate with partners. This means preserving resources that give freedom of decision and favouring capabilities that allow freedom of action, such as intelligence and targeting capacities. Second is consistency between armed forces’ organisation and possible engagement scenarios. For instance, forces must be able to respond in the event of a state-level threat, but also – ‘and sometimes simultaneously’ – undertake long-term crisis-management operations, as well as retaining the capacity to carry out tasks such as infrastructure protection. Thirdly, forces need to be differentiated according to their specialisation, so that they are more effective in their particular role; this also would enable ‘substantial savings by financing the most expensive or modern capabilities only where they are indispensable’. Analysts said this was similar thinking to the way the UK SDSR differentiated readiness levels within the Future Force 2020 construct, not least given the cost of maintaining forces at high readiness. Finally, pooling scarce and critical capabilities could allow economies in terms of allocating multi-purpose capabilities, depending on the particular mission requirement. This could also take place at the European level. Relevant capability areas include space, air transport, airborne refuelling, and surveillance and logistics.

Defence budgeting

In common with much of Europe, France saw a slowdown in economic growth after the 2008 financial crisis. After a sharp 3.1% contraction in 2009, moderate growth rates of 1.7% returned in 2010 and 2011, before the economy stagnated again in 2012 and 2013 (with growth at 0.03% and a projected -0.07% respectively). The unemployment rate exceeded 10% in 2012, while gross debt exceeded 90% of GDP in the same year. Although successive administrations made significant progress in reducing budget deficits from a high of 7.6% of GDP in 2009 to just under 4% of GDP in 2013, the general government fiscal deficit nonetheless averaged 5.6% of GDP over the period – according to the IMF, the only states in Europe where this was higher were Portugal, Greece, Spain, Ireland, Cyprus, Slovakia and the UK. Consequently, budgetary consolidation continued in 2013, with the government aiming to achieve deficit targets of 3.6% of GDP in 2014 and 2.8% in 2015, as part of an agreement with the European Commission in May 2013 to extend by an additional year (to 2015) the time France had to achieve the Maastricht Treaty requirement that budget deficits not exceed 3% of GDP.

As part of these efforts, the finance ministry had looked for significant savings. In the event, Minister of Defence Jean-Yves Le Drian persuaded President François Hollande to hold non-pension defence-budget allocations steady in nominal terms at €31.38bn from 2014 to 2016, before rising gradually in 2017 and 2018 (on average, by 0.64%) and levelling off in 2019 at €32.51bn. The maintenance of nominal spending levels between 2014 and 2016 was in part to be achieved through the realisation of ‘exceptional receipts’ from the sale of existing assets, such as real estate, used equipment and existing state equity holdings in major French defence companies. The state currently holds a 27% interest in Thales and Safran, 12% in EADS and 74% in shipbuilder DCNS. There was even talk of selling some state holdings in EDF and GDF SUEZ. Also important was the proposed sale of radio frequencies. Le Drian claimed that he already had €1.3bn in savings lined up for 2013 and was confident that he would find €1.8bn for 2014. These disposals (cumulatively totalling €6.1bn) were envisaged to fund 5.6% of the total defence budget in both 2014 and 2015, before declining gradually to fund 0.5% of the total in 2019. Despite the protection of nominal spending levels, however, defence spending is set to decline over the period in real terms: based on IMF deflator projections, real defence outlays are likely to decline by an average of 1.4% per annum between 2014 and 2018, with real non-pension defence-budget allocations in 2018 running at some 6.9% lower than they did in 2013. Additionally, as the economy grows over the period while nominal defence spending remains stagnant, defence spending as a proportion of GDP will fall from around 1.9% of GDP in 2013 to approximately 1.65% of GDP in 2018.

Policy implementation

On 2 August, the LPM was released, giving more detail on how France would implement, and fund, the White Paper’s policy decisions. France would retain the capacity to manage a crisis such as that in Mali by projecting force to ‘priority zones’ – the Mediterranean, much of Africa, the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. There would be 5,000 personnel at high readiness, and from this a 2,300-strong Quick Reaction Joint Force would be drawn. Up to 7,000 troops, plus air and naval assets, would be earmarked for crisis-management tasks. For major, high-intensity operations, limited in duration and with reasonable notice, envisaged assets included 15,000 troops, special forces, up to 45 combat aircraft, a carrier group and other naval assets; this was down from the 30,000-personnel total envisaged for a major multinational commitment under the 2008 White Paper. A total of 23,500 jobs would be cut from the armed forces in addition to the 10,175 job reductions remaining to be made since the findings of the 2008 White Paper. Around 7,500 soldiers would be removed from the payroll each year between 2014 and 2019, and some regiments were to disband. However, the majority of the reductions would affect support and administrative posts. These cuts were designed to save €4.4bn in salary costs.

The LPM is linked to the objective of preserving the main sectors of France’s defence industry, ranging from aeronautics and communications to space and submarines. The maintenance of a viable and competitive defence industry was seen as a vital national and European interest, and the European Defence Agency was highlighted as the body responsible for promoting it. Space-based intelligence was a priority, with the optical-surveillance satellite MUSIS due to enter service in 2017 and the electronic-interception satellite CERES due in 2020. Overall, €17.1bn was set aside for equipment renewal. However, the LPM envisaged purchasing only 26 Rafale combat aircraft between 2014 and 2019, instead of the 11 per annum bought in recent years. Falling below 11 per year has production-cost implications, but the government hopes that exports will close this gap. However, Dassault has not, to date, secured contracts in the United Arab Emirates and Brazil, both potential overseas markets. Talks continue with India, which has selected the Rafale to meet a 126-aircraft requirement; French officials express confidence that the deal will be finalised. France’s nuclear deterrent, comprising both air- and submarine-launched components, was still seen as the cornerstone of French security. Four ballistic-missile submarines will be retained, with the deterrent as a whole expected to cost €23bn over six years. The nuclear deterrent is explicitly stated to contribute to the security of the Atlantic Alliance and Europe.

The implications of the LPM for force structures became apparent in early October, with the first announcements concerning defence restructuring due for 2014. Among other measures, the 4th Regiment of Dragoons was to disband. The 1st Foreign Legion Cavalry Regiment, stationed at Orange in southeastern France, was to transfer to the Dragoons’ former base, with the 115th air base ensuring a continued defence presence at Orange. The air base at Dijon-Longvic was to close in 2014–15, and an air detachment at Varennes-sur-Allier to disband, as was an air-defence unit at the 116th air base at Luxeuil. The Directorate of Military Intelligence, at Creil, was to transfer to Balard, in southwest Paris, in line with a move to consolidate project staffs, departments and services into a single site. Further announcements were expected in 2014.

UNITED KINGDOM

The 2010 SDSR saw the UK government decide to reduce defence spending by 8%. Operational planning assumptions were made less demanding (see The Military Balance 2013, p. 107) and most non-nuclear capabilities were reduced by 20–30%. In 2013, implementation of SDSR changes continued, including reduction of civilian and military personnel. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) adopted a new management model, including decentralisation of budgets and authority for military capability moving from a much smaller ministry to the three armed services and the new Joint Forces Command (JFC). The four commands (army, navy, air force and the JFC) will now set the requirements for their force structure, equipment, personnel, training and logistics, and will manage four large, devolved budgets for this purpose.

UK forces in Afghanistan continued to be reduced, with the target of 5,000 troops remaining there by the end of 2013. Afghan forces in Helmand Province assumed security leadership and British mentors largely withdrew, although they were temporarily redeployed to support an Afghan counter-attack to evict Taliban fighters from Sangin. The unexpected French operation in Mali was supported by RAF C-17 airlifters, a logistics team and the deployment of a Sentinel surveillance aircraft. UK trainers subsequently joined the EU training mission there. Royal Navy (RN) deployments to the Gulf continued and deployments of RAF Typhoon fighter aircraft to the UAE for training increased. These deployments, and apparent increases in training and defence-sales efforts, pointed to greater British military engagement in the region.

Cyber capability

Following direction from outgoing Chief of the Defence Staff General David Richards that the armed forces should be just as capable of manoeuvring in cyberspace as in the land, sea and air domains, Hammond announced that ‘you deter people by having an offensive capability. We will build in Britain a cyber-strike capability … putting cyber alongside land, sea, air and space as a mainstream military activity. Our commanders can use cyber weapons alongside conventional weapons.’ It was also announced that a Joint Cyber Reserve Unit would be established.

Armed services

Detailed plans for new army structures were announced in July 2013, including the withdrawal of remaining troops from Germany by 2018 and a revised role and force structure for UK reserves. This envisaged reversing a decade’s decline in reserve strength by building closer relations with employers and increased investment in recruiting and training. Reserves of all services would be increased in trained strength from 29,000 to 44,000, with army-reserve trained strength set to rise to 38,000 by 2018. However, as of autumn 2013, neither regular nor reserve recruiting targets were being met, and there were no plans to bridge the gap between reduction of regular manpower by 2015 and the 2018 target for full reserve operational capability. Some critics cited the disbandment of infantry battalions, and the increase in reserve elements, as representing increased military risk.

Rebuilding the army’s capability beyond 2015 depends on whether the planned withdrawal from Afghanistan remains on track, not least because the army plans to make wider use of much of the equipment purchased for that campaign, including surveillance equipment, weapons and protected patrol vehicles. Much of the army’s support capability has been employed in Afghanistan, so will need to return to the UK for refurbishment before it can be used for contingency operations and training.

Reductions in Afghanistan allowed the army to begin rebuilding readiness for intervention operations, including the Air Assault Brigade’s parachute capability – albeit to meet a requirement greatly reduced in the SDSR. Afghan reductions also meant that the army’s high-readiness Lead Armoured Battle Group would become operational in 2014. The alignment of some brigades with overseas regions of strategic interest to the UK began, with 4 Brigade (aligned to North Africa) assigned to train tranches of Libyan security personnel (2,000 in total), though as of October 2013 this had yet to start.

A £10bn programme to upgrade UK battlefield helicopter capability progressed, as did work to define the best way to spend £5bn allocated to armoured vehicle modernisation. This programme included a funded upgrade to the Warrior AIFV and replacement of Scorpion reconnaissance vehicles with the new Scout vehicle. Meanwhile, deliveries of the Terrier armoured engineering vehicle began.

Navy personnel cuts and equipment reductions are complete, save for the expected retirement of the LPH HMS Illustrious in 2014, with LPH HMS Ocean due to return to service in early 2014 after refit. In 2013 the RN focused on improving readiness, taking equipment deliveries into service and planning future programmes. HMS Illustrious led the Response Force Task Group’s return to the Mediterranean for Cougar 13 exercises. Following its commitment to Afghanistan, the commando brigade was rebuilding its role as the UK’s amphibious landing force.

The possibility of the navy retaining both of its Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers in service after they are completed in 2016 and 2018 improved after Hammond commented that he supported such a policy. The Type-45 air-defence destroyer programme neared completion with the commissioning of HMS Duncan, with the Type-26 frigate due to enter service in 2021. Design of the Type-26 progressed and some initial contracts were awarded, with the latest iteration including new Sea Ceptor missiles and a 16-cell vertical-launch system. Although the lead boat of the Astute-class submarines suffered a number of technical problems, a second Astute vessel was commissioned and a sixth laid down; the class is to comprise seven in total.

The RAF continued to both downsize and to replace ageing aircraft types. The VC10 tanker transport retired in September 2013, with the C-130K following in October. The former is being replaced by the Voyager, based on the A330, with the latter likely to be replaced in the special-forces role by modified C-130Js.

Reduction of Tornado GR4s continued with 617 Squadron being disbanded, though it is due to reform in 2016 as the first RAF F-35 squadron. The MoD was expected to place its first production order for 12–14 F-35Bs before the end of 2013. With the last of the GR4s expected to be withdrawn in 2019, the RAF continued to pursue additional air-to-surface capability for the Typhoon, including the Paveway IV dual mode precision-guided bomb and Storm Shadow land-attack cruise missiles.

The RAF has been conducting an Air ISTAR Optimisation Study, which includes maritime surveillance. The UK has been without a dedicated maritime patrol aircraft since the 2010 cancellation of the Nimrod MRA4. Plans to withdraw the MQ-9 Reaper UAV and the Sentinel R1 by the end of 2014 were being reconsidered in light of Reaper’s utility in Afghanistan, and Sentinel’s value in Libya and Mali.

Future challenges

Preparations began for a fresh SDSR in 2015, where a new government would be offered strategic choices. Much of this work re-examined familiar subjects, including NATO, European defence and regional dynamics. Hammond identified the size of the UK F-35 purchase, rebuilding maritime-patrol capability and future military cyber capabilities as key issues. Four other subjects could have strategic implications for UK defence: the future nuclear deterrent, potential Scottish independence, potential UK withdrawal from the EU and the August 2013 parliamentary veto on a military strike on Syria.

To meet a pledge made in the 2010 coalition agreement, the government published an appraisal of options for the UK’s future nuclear deterrent. Unsurprisingly, it concluded that the current arrangement of four Trident SLBMs, with one on continuous patrol, was the most cost-effective solution. Many experts were unconvinced by statements, from coalition partners the Liberal Democrats, that whilst a deterrent was necessary it could be accomplished with fewer submarines. Whatever option was adopted, new submarines would be required in the next decade, and the history of recent submarine building led some analysts to suggest that the cost of a future deterrent might well squeeze out conventional equipment programmes.

Less than a year before the referendum on Scottish independence, the government and the House of Commons Defence Committee both assessed that the Scottish National Party’s plans for security and defence of an independent Scotland were unconvincing. The MoD refused to be drawn on the potential costs of relocating the current Trident submarine base and conventional forces outside Scotland. Its public position was that any referendum vote for independence would need to be followed by negotiations, after which defence disengagement between the two nations would take place in an orderly fashion – so the MoD would not make contingency plans.

Prime Minister David Cameron promised a referendum on UK membership of the EU in the next parliament. However, with only France matching the UK in terms of expeditionary capability and the political and cultural willingness to engage in combat – notwithstanding the Syria vote – a British exit would greatly reduce the credibility of the EU’s CSDP.

In the August 2013 parliamentary debate on Syria, a narrow majority of MPs were unconvinced by the government’s case for military intervention to deter further chemical-weapon strikes by the Assad regime. Although the armed forces remained extremely popular, it appeared that, as noted by Hammond, ‘there is a deep well of suspicion about military involvement in the Middle East stemming largely from the experiences of Iraq’.

MPs voting against the government were not condoning the Assad regime’s chemical-weapon attacks, but they were expressing Iraq-influenced doubts about the intelligence that was presented, and reacting against being pressed into rapid action while UN inspectors were still at work in Syria – another Iraq parallel. Many doubted that the strikes being contemplated would have any useful effect. It was not clear whether the vote was an exceptional event, the beginning of the unravelling of the last two decades of broad political consensus on defence or an indication that important elements of the UK’s populace and its political elite were losing confidence in the utility of force.

DEFENCE ECONOMICS

Macroeconomics

UK economic growth has remained anaemic since the 2008 financial crisis. In 2012, real GDP was still some 4% lower than pre-crisis levels and, according to the IMF, growth averaged 1.1% between 2010 and 2013. In 2013, business investment levels remained low, while inflation was still above target. Meanwhile, gross national debt more than doubled from 43.7% of GDP in 2007 to a projected 92.1% in 2013. Much of this increase was necessitated by the need to bail out the highly-indebted banking sector, along with a decline in tax revenues from that sector. Despite making progress in reducing the fiscal deficit, the weak economic recovery has required the coalition government to prolong austerity measures first announced in 2010. Originally intended to last five years, to 2015, intervening economic stagnation meant that in December 2012 the chancellor was forced to announce that deficit-reduction measures would be extended to 2018 before the budget deficit could be eliminated.

Defence spending

Significant progress had been made by May 2012 towards the government’s 2010 objective of reducing real defence spending by 8% by 2015, as well as in resolving the £38bn (US$59bn) ‘unfunded liabilities’ gap in acquisition plans. This enabled the defence secretary to announce that the defence budget had finally been brought into balance for the first time in a decade. A revised long-term equipment plan for 2012–22 was drawn up by mid-2012, and a portion of this was provided to the National Audit Office (NAO) for independent assessment.

However, economic stagnation meant that revenue and deficit projections, which informed the decision to reduce real-terms spending by 8%, turned out to be overly optimistic. With austerity measures originally planned to last until 2015 extended to 2018 for many departments, the chancellor announced in the Autumn Statement 2012 that further defence budget reductions would occur in 2013 and 2014. Relative to the projected spending levels planned in 2010, the 2013 resource budget would be cut by 1% (£249m or US$382m) and the 2014 resource budget would be cut by 2% (£490m or US$753m). It should be noted that these percentage reductions apply only to the MoD resource budget – which finances current expenditure such as personnel and training – and not to its capital budget, which finances longer-term defence investment spending such as equipment acquisition. The reduced 2013 and 2014 figures also formed a lower baseline from which the 2015 resource budget allocation would be calculated. Funding for the multi-year equipment budget (2012–22) was agreed in mid-2012 and remains unaffected by the lower baseline.

With £11.5bn (US$17.7bn) to be reduced across government departments in 2015 as part of the austerity extension, discussions with the Treasury over the distribution of these reductions occurred over the first half of 2013. Further reductions to the 2015 defence budget were also discussed. By late 2013, it appeared that the MoD had succeeded in avoiding additional austerity measures, in part by agreeing efficiency savings in lieu of cuts. Due to larger-than-expected cost savings and improved efficiency since 2010, the MoD underspent its budget allocation in both 2012 and 2013, enabling it to carry forward these funds to help mitigate any further reductions in future non-equipment budgets.

Defence Equipment Plan 2012–22

In January 2013, the MoD published a summarised version of its Defence Equipment Plan 2012, which set out the distribution of equipment acquisition and support funding between 2012 and 2022. Of the £147.1bn (US$226bn) allocated to core equipment, just over 50% (£78bn or US$120bn) would be spent on new equipment and support costs, and the remaining £68bn (US$105bn) was allocated to supporting equipment already in service. In nominal terms, annual allocations for equipment acquisition and support are set to rise by more than one-third between 2012 and 2022.

As shown in Figure 8, almost one-quarter of the £147.1bn (24.3%; £35.8bn) was allocated to funding submarine development (including the remaining Astute-class submarines) and the costs associated with renewing the UK’s nuclear deterrent – such as the design and production of the Vanguard-class ballistic-missile submarine replacement (assuming this is approved in 2015), and the costs of maintaining strategic weapons systems. When this is combined with the 11.8% of the plan allocated to naval surface combatants – such as construction of the two Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers, Type-45 destroyer construction and Type-26 frigate development – maritime assets comprised more than one-third of the Equipment Plan (36.2%; £53.2bn). Fixed- and rotary-wing air assets made up the second-largest component (30.3%; £44.5bn), and included funds for Typhoon Tranche 2 and 3 and F-35 Lightning II programmes; UAVs; A400M and C-17 airlifters; and Voyager tankers. Land equipment made up the smallest portion of the Equipment Plan (8.4%; £12.3bn), although spending on new land systems was projected to rise sharply after FY2015/16 with the development of Future Rapid Effects System vehicles such as Scout.

Overall, combat air, air support and helicopters were prioritised during the earlier periods of the plan (until around 2016–17), while land systems, submarines and the nuclear deterrent were generally backloaded to the middle and end of the period (around 2016–22). Spending on ISR programmes (13.2%; £20.1bn) and munitions (7.5%; £11.4bn) was projected to remain relatively constant throughout the decade.

Built into these projections were two types of contingency funds, designed to guard against the kind of cost escalation that had blighted the department in the past. Firstly, £8.4bn (US$12.9bn) was built into the cost estimates of individual project budgets based on identified risks (this was included in the core £147.1bn). Secondly, £4.8bn (US$7.4bn) was allocated as centrally held contingency funding, to be distributed if costs within individual project budgets grew by more than that detailed in initial risk provisions. On top of these contingency funds, a further £8bn (US$12.3bn) was budgeted, but not allocated, so that funding could be found for high-priority items that emerge over the course of the decade. However, the Equipment Plan does not fund Urgent Operational Requirements or any net additional costs of supporting equipment in theatre, which are instead funded out of the Treasury Special Reserve. When the centrally held contingency fund and unallocated headroom are included, the total allocation for equipment procurement and support rises to £159bn over ten years.

Figure 8 Composition of the UK Multi-Year Equipment Plan 2012–221
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Defence-acquisition reform

Although progress has been made towards better management of defence acquisition, it is too soon to tell if the legacy of programme delays and cost overruns has been overcome. In large measure, this is due to costing difficulties associated with the number and complexity of the elements that make up the ten-year equipment-acquisition programme. This comprises more than 400 individual cost lines relating to specific projects, involving thousands of assessments and assumptions that rely on specialist technical knowledge. The accuracy and validity of these can only be known as the plan is implemented, and assessments will need to be adjusted over time to be made more realistic. According to the NAO, ‘to increase confidence in the realism of its assumptions and the consistency with which its forecasts are calculated, the Department will need to demonstrate their reasonableness over a period of years’.

In addition, the NAO was only able to assess less than half (46%) of the total value of the Equipment Plan, as the MoD has not yet been able to apply the same rigour in costing the equipment-support costs part of the plan (valued at around £86bn) as it had the equipment-procurement portion (valued at £60bn). Thus, escalation in equipment-support costs may yet prove to be problematic for the department. Overall, the NAO concluded that it could not offer a definitive view on the affordability of the Equipment Plan, and noted that that plan was highly sensitive to changes in funding assumptions. These views were echoed by the parliamentary Public Accounts Committee (PAC), which also noted assumptions in the plan over funding levels the MoD would receive from the Treasury, as well as the MoD’s ability to reduce the non-equipment portion of the defence budget. Given the history of defence-cost escalation, the PAC expressed concern that the contingency measures built into the plan may be inadequate – the centrally held contingency fund amounted to just 3% of the total equipment plan. Overall, the PAC agreed with the NAO that the MoD was making progress, but that ‘concerns over over-optimistic assumptions, the completeness and robustness of support cost estimates, and risks to capability mean that we cannot yet have confidence that the Equipment Plan is affordable’.

In parallel to these developments, the MoD continued with its controversial moves to restructure Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S), the agency responsible for equipment acquisition and through-life support (see The Military Balance 2013, pp. 109–10). In April 2013, the MoD began a 12-month study to assess whether to outsource the management of defence procurement to the private sector through reconstituting DE&S as a ‘government owned, contractor operated’ entity (Go-Co), or to retain DE&S within the public sector but with an overhauled management structure (termed the ‘DE&S Plus’ option). Three consortia were set up between the bidding companies, although by August 2013 this was reduced to two. In addition to the limited number of participants competing to operate the Go-Co, a major hurdle involved potential conflicts of interest involving the companies bidding to run DE&S, many of which already regularly enter into contracts directly with the MoD, or indirectly through other major suppliers to the MoD such as BAE Systems. Any firms operating MoD procurement tenders through a Go-Co arrangement would likely be unable to bid for these contracts in future, and may have to accept significant limits on their interactions with other major MoD suppliers. Partly in response to these concerns, in October 2013 additional resourcing was provided to the DE&S Plus team operating within the MoD. After data from both possible operating models is assessed in mid-2014, a final decision over the model to be used will be made. If the Go-Co model is approved, a contractor would be selected in the second half of 2014, and would take on the first stage of Go-Co operation in late 2014. A second stage of outsourcing would be taken over in 2016.

Albania

Albania ALB
         
Albanian Lek   2012 2013 2014
GDP lek 1.41tr 1.49tr  
  US$ 12.7bn 13.4bn  
per capita US$ 3,913 4,108  
Growth % 1.30 1.80  
Inflation % 2.02 2.17  
Def bdgt a lek 19.9bn 19.3bn 16.8bn
  US$ 185m 182m  
FMA (US) US$ 3m 3m 2.6m
US$1=lek   107.52 105.68  
a Excludes military pensions
         
Population 3,011,405      
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 10.5% 5.0% 5.0% 4.3% 19.6% 5.1%
Female 9.4% 4.6% 4.9% 4.5% 21.4% 5.7%

Capabilities

Albania has limited military capability predicated on internal security and disaster relief tasks. Efforts continue to reform its armed forces and upgrade equipment, though these are constrained by limited funding. The armed forces professionalised in 2010, one year after Albania joined NATO. Much defence activity is concerned with meeting NATO standards, including training, planning and generation of strategy documents. The 2013 Defence Directive listed full integration into NATO as a prime objective; this was achieved in October. The army, the largest of the three services, has provided troops to ISAF, for duties including surveillance and force-protection, and an EOD team to Operation Althea, in Bosnia. The small air brigade operates only rotary-wing and light liaison aircraft, and the country depends on NATO allies for air defence. The armed forces have no strategic lift. Albania is engaged in revising its national military strategy.

ACTIVE 14,250 (Joint Force Comd 8,150, Support Command 4,300, TRADOC 1,000, MoD and General Staff 800) Paramilitary 500

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Joint Forces Command (JFC) 8,150

Consists of a land element (comprising a rapid reaction bde, cdo regt, regional spt bde, log bn and comms bn), an air bde and naval bde. JFC units are intended to conduct and support international peace-support and humanitarian operations, and other crisis management tasks.

   Land Element
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 cdo regt

MANOEUVRE

Light

1 (rapid reaction) lt inf bde

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bn

1 cbt spt bde

1 sigs bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bn

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 3 Type-59

APC (T) 6 Type-5310

ARTY

TOWED 18 152 mm

MOR 81: 82mm 81

AD GUNS 42 37mm M-1939/S 60

ARV T-54/T-55

MW Bozena

   Navy Element

The Albanian Navy Brigade, under the command of JFC, is organised into two naval flotillas with additional hydrographic, logistics, auxiliary and training support services.

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPB 4: 2 Nyryat I; 2 Shanghai II† (PRC) with two single 533mm TT

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURESMSO 1 T-43† (FSU Project 254)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORTARL 1; YPT 1 Poluchat

   Coast Guard
   FORCES BY ROLE

The Albanian Coast Guard (Roja Bregdetare) is under the command of the Navy Brigade’s Coastal Defence Command.

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 34

PBF 13: 8 V-4000; 5 Archangel

PB 8: 3 Iluria (Damen Stan 4207 - 1 additional vessel to be delivered); 3 Mk3 Sea Spectre; 2 (other)

PBR 13: 4 Type-227; 1 Type-246; 1 Type-303; 7 Type-2010

   Air Element

Flying hours at least 10–15 hrs/year.

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

HELICOPTERS

TPT 23 Medium 2 AS532AL Cougar; Light 21: 1 AW109; 5 Bell 205 (AB-205); 7 Bell 206C (AB-206C); 8 Bo-105

Support Command (SC) 4,300

Consists of the logistics brigade, support regiment, infrastructure regiment, personnel and recruiting centre, military hospital, systems development centre and military police battalion.

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 MP bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde (1 spt regt (tpt, EOD & maint)

1 fd hospital

Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) 1,000

Consists of the defence academy, military university, NCO academy, basic training brigade, the consolidated troops school, centre for defense analysis and training support centre.

Paramilitary ε500

 

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1998)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the parliament upon proposal by the president (Art.171 II)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 105; 1 inf coy

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 14

FOREIGN FORCES

Italy 27 (Delegazione Italiana Esperti)

Austria

Austria AUT
         
Euro €   2012 2013 2014
GDP 318bn 329bn  
  US$ 399bn 423bn  
per capita US$ 47,083 49,844  
Growth % 0.79 0.77  
Inflation % 2.58 2.20  
Def exp a 2.51bn    
  US$ 3.23bn    
Def bdgt a 2.48bn 2.43bn  
  US$ 3.19bn 3.23bn  
US$1=€   0.78 0.75  
a Includes military pensions
         
Population 8,221,646      
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.0% 2.9% 3.1% 3.1% 24.7% 8.0%
Female 6.7% 2.8% 3.0% 3.0% 24.8% 10.9%

Capabilities

The armed forces remain configured to provide territorial defence, despite the conclusion of the 2013 National Security Strategy that this is an unlikely contingency. A proposal to abandon conscription was rejected by referendum. Transformation plans were scaled back after the financial crisis, though the main tenets of a 2004 reform plan have been retained. Nonetheless, crisis management contributions are seen as essential tasks. Power projection capability is limited, and the ambition of deploying a framework brigade has been delayed until at least 2016. The level of ambition for participation in international missions has modified, with the aim now of being able to deploy concurrently up to three infantry battalions and further small contingents. Battalion- or company-sized contributions to multinational peacekeeping missions are the armed forces’ primary operational activity, although some high readiness units, made up of career soldiers, have been formed for potential crisis-management tasks. Current equipment priorities are focused on aircraft and helicopter upgrades, and acquisitions to ensure interoperable units for EU Battlegroups. Training levels are high, and include regular participation in multinational exercises.

ACTIVE 22,800 (Army 11,300; Air 2,700; Support 8,800)

Conscript liability 6 months recruit trg, 30 days reservist refresher trg for volunteers; 120–150 days additional for officers, NCOs and specialists. Authorised maximum wartime strength of 55,000

RESERVE 171,400 (Joint structured 26,700; Joint unstructured 144,700)

Some 11,100 reservists a year undergo refresher trg in tranches

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Joint Command – Land Forces 11,300

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Mechanised

1 (3rd) bde (1 recce/SP arty bn, 1 armd bn, 1 mech inf bn, 1 inf bn, 1 cbt engr bn, 1 CBRN defence coy, 1 spt bn)

1 (4th) bde (1 recce/SP arty bn, 1 armd bn, 1 mech inf bn, 1 inf bn, 1 CBRN defence coy, 1 spt bn)

Light

1 (6th) bde (3 inf bn, 1 cbt engr bn, 1 CBRN defence coy, 1 spt bn)

1 (7th) bde (1 recce/arty bn, 3 inf bn, 1 cbt engr bn, 1 CBRN defence coy, 1 spt bn)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 56 Leopard 2A4

RECCE 12 CBRN Dingo

AIFV 112 Ulan

APC 94

APC (W) 71 Pandur

PPV 23 Dingo II

ARTY 163

SP155mm 58 M109A5ÖE (to reduce to 32)

MOR120mm 105 M-43 (80 more in store)

AT MSL MANPATS PAL 2000 BILL

ARV 48: 38 4KH7FA-SB; 10 M88A1

MW 6 AID2000 Trailer

Joint Command - Air Force 2,700

The Air Force is part of Joint Forces Comd and consists of 2 bde; Air Support Comd and Airspace Surveillance Comd

Flying hours 160 hrs/year on hel/tpt ac; 110 hrs/year on ftr

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

2 sqn with Typhoon

ISR

1 sqn with PC-6B Turbo Porter

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130K Hercules

TRAINING

1 trg sqn with Saab 105Oe*

1 trg sqn with PC-7 Turbo Trainer

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with Bell 212 (AB-212)

1 sqn with OH-58B Kiowa

1 sqn with S-70A Black Hawk

2 sqn with SA316/SA319 Alouette III

AIR DEFENCE

2 bn

1 radar bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 37 combat capable

FTR 15 Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1

TPT 11: Medium 3 C-130K Hercules; Light 8 PC-6B Turbo Porter

TRG 34: 12 PC-7 Turbo Trainer; 22 Saab 105Oe*

HELICOPTERS

MRH 24 SA316/SA319 Alouette III

ISR 11 OH-58B Kiowa

TPT 32: Medium 9 S-70A Black Hawk; Light 23 Bell 212 (AB-212)

AD

SAM 24 Mistral (12 more in store)

GUNS35mm 24 Z-FIAK system (29 more in store)

MSLAAM IIR IRIS-T

Joint Command – Special Operations Forces

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

2 SF gp

1 SF gp (reserve)

Support 8,800

Support forces comprise Joint Services Support Command and several agencies, academies and schools.

Cyber

The MoD is developing a national-level Cyber Attack Information System (CAIS) with the goal of strengthening resilience and increasing survivability and reliability of IT structures. The national Austrian Cyber Security Strategy was approved by legislators in March 2013. The MoD’s primary goal is ‘cyber defence’, by ensuring national defence in cyberspace as well as securing MoD ICT. The Military Cyber Emergency Readiness Team (milCERT) will be expanded to improve situational awareness and develop Computer Network Operations capabilities.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: incl ‘Federal Constitutional Law’ (1/1930)

Specific legislation: ‘Bundesverfassungsgesetz über Kooperation und Solidarität bei der Entsendung von Einheiten und Einzelpersonen in das Ausland’ (KSE-BVG, 1997)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By government on authorisation of the National Council’s Main Committee; simplified procedure for humanitarian and rescue tasks (Art. 23j of the ‘Federal Constitutional Law’; § 2 of the KSE-BVG)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 3

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 314; 1 inf bn HQ; 1 recce pl; 1 inf coy

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1

Cyprus

UN • UNFICYP 4

Democratic Republic of The Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 1

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 168; 1 log coy

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 8

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 6 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 380; 1 mech inf coy

OSCE • Kosovo 8

OSCE • Serbia 2

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 2 obs

Belgium

Belgium BEL
         
Euro €   2012 2013 2014
GDP 384bn 395bn  
  US$ 485bn 511bn  
per capita US$ 43,686 45,687  
Growth % -0.20 0.16  
Inflation % 2.62 1.73  
Def bdgt a 4.09bn 3.98bn  
  US$ 5.27bn 5.29bn  
US$1=€   0.78 0.75  
a Includes military pensions
         
Population 10,444,268      
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 8.0% 2.9% 3.1% 3.1% 24.0% 7.8%
Female 7.7% 2.8% 3.0% 2.9% 23.8% 10.8%

Capabilities

The armed forces have been reduced in response to broader economic problems, and the intention was to implement most of the cuts by the end of 2013. There are concerns about their impact on some areas of operational readiness. Despite financial constraints, Belgium continues to pursue more deployable forces, with orders placed for A400M transport aircraft and NH90 NFH/TTH anti-submarine warfare/transport helicopters. A quick reaction force is maintained, and there is a limited ability for power projection, although only as part of a multinational deployment. The armed forces exercise jointly on a regular basis and also participate in a broad range of multinational training exercises. Belgian forces have deployed to ISAF since 2003. They provided air transport and force-protection support for French operations in Mali in 2013, and its troops were part of the EU training mission to Mali during the second part of 2013. The land component has been reshaped as a wheeled medium brigade and an airborne-capable light brigade. The naval component focuses on escort and mine countermeasures for littoral and blue-water operations. The air component faces a significant change in inventory around the end of this decade, when it will need to replace its F-16s.

ACTIVE 30,700 (Army 11,300 Navy 1,500 Air 6,000 Medical Service 1,400 Joint Service 10,500)

RESERVE 6,800

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Land Component 11,300

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF gp

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISTAR gp (2 ISTAR coy, 1 surv coy)

Mechanised

1 (med) bde (4 mech bn)

Light

1 (lt) bde (1 cdo bn, 1 lt inf bn, 1 para bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty gp (1 arty bty, 1 mor bty, 1 AD bty)

2 engr bn (1 cbt engr coy, 1 lt engr coy, 1 construction coy)

1 EOD unit

1 CBRN coy

1 MP coy (with 1 pl dedicated to EUROCORPS)

3 CIS sigs gp

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

3 log bn

   Reserves 1,400
   Territorial Support Units
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

11 inf unit

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 16 Leopard 1A5

AIFV 37: 19 Piranha III-C DF30; 18 Piranha III-C DF90

APC 338

APC (W) 118: 40 Pandur; 64 Piranha III-C; 14 Piranha III-PC

PPV 220 Dingo

ARTY 105

TOWED 105mm 14 LG1 MK II

MOR 91: 81mm 39; 120mm 52

AD SAM 45 Mistral

AEV 11: 3 Leopard 1; 8 Piranha III-C

ARV 15: 3 Leopard 1; 3 Pandur; 9 Piranha III-C

VLB 4 Leguan

Naval Component 1,500

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 2

FRIGATESFFGHM 2 Karel Doorman each with 2 quad lnchr with Harpoon AShM, 1 16-cell Mk48 VLS with RIM-7P Sea Sparrow SAM, 4 single Mk32 324mm ASTT with Mk 46 HWT, 1 Goalkeeper CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 med hel)

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURESMHC 6 Flower (Tripartite)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 9

AG 1 Stern with 1 hel landing platform

AGFH 1 Godetia (log spt/comd) (capacity 1 Alouette III)

AGOR 1 Belgica

AXS 1 Zenobe Gramme

YTL 3 Wesp

YTM 2

   Naval Aviation

(part of the Air Component)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

HELICOPTERS

ASW 1 NH90 NFH

MRH 3 SA316B Alouette III (to be replaced by NH90 NFH)

Air Component 6,000

Flying hours  165 hrs/yr on cbt ac. 300 hrs/yr on tpt ac. 150 hrs/yr on hel; 250 hrs/yr on ERJ

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK/ISR

4 sqn with F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with Sea King Mk48

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with A330; ERJ-135 LR; ERJ-145 LR; Falcon 20 (VIP); Falcon 900B

1 sqn with C-130H Hercules

TRAINING

1 OCU sqn with F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

1 sqn with SF-260D/MB

1 BEL/FRA unit with Alpha Jet*

1 OCU unit with AW109

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with AW109 (ISR)

ISR UAV

1 sqn with RQ-5A Hunter (B-Hunter)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 88 combat capable

FTR 59: 49 F-16AM Fighting Falcon; 10 F-16BM Fighting Falcon

TPT: 19 Medium 11 C-130H Hercules; Light 4: 2 ERJ-135 LR; 2 ERJ-145 LR; PAX 4: 1 A330; 2 Falcon 20 (VIP); 1 Falcon 900B

TRG 61: 29 Alpha Jet*; 9 SF-260D; 23 SF-260MB

HELICOPTERS

ASW 1 NH90 NFH opcon Navy

MRH 3 SA316B Alouette III opcon Navy

SAR 3 Sea King Mk48 (to be replaced by NH90 NFH)

TPT 21 Medium 1 NH90 TTH; Light 20 AW109 (ISR)

UAV ISR Heavy 12 RQ-5A Hunter (B-Hunter)

MSL

AAM • IR AIM-9M/N Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120B AMRAAM

BOMBS

INS/GPS guided: GBU-31 JDAM; GBU-38 JDAM; GBU-54 (dual-mode)

Laser-Guided: GBU-10/GBU-12 Paveway II; GBU-24 Paveway III

PODS Infrared/TV: 12 Sniper

Cyber

The Cyber Security Strategy Belgium was approved in December 2012. An MoD Defense Cyber Strategy is due for approval before end-2013. These measures should allow, from 2013 to 2016, extension of the limited capabilities of the Federal Computer Crime Unit, CERT.be and the MoD.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1831)

Specific legislation: ‘Loi relatif à la mise en oeuvre des forces armées, à la mise en condition, ainsi qu’aux périodes et positions dans lesquelles le militaire peut se trouver’ (1994)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the government (Federal Council of Ministers) and the minister of defence (1994 law, Art. 88, 106, 167 of constitution)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 180; 6 F-16AM Fighting Falcon

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 4

UN • MONUSCO 23; 1 avn flt with 1 C-130H

France

NATO • Air Component 28 Alpha Jet located at Cazeaux/Tours

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 104; 1 engr coy

Lithuania

NATO Baltic Air Policing 4 F-16AM Fighting Falcon

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 34

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 2 obs

North Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 1: 1 MHC

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 6

FOREIGN FORCES

United States US European Command: 1,200

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bosnia-Herzegovina BIH
         
Convertible Mark 2012 2013 2014
GDP mark 27.8bn 29.3bn  
  US$ 17.3bn 18.9bn  
per capita US$ 4,461 4,866  
Growth % -0.70 0.50  
Inflation % 2.05 1.80  
Def bdgt mark 352m    
  US$ 231m    
FMA (US) US$ 4.5m 4.5m 4.5m
US$1=mark   1.52 1.48  
         
Population 3,875,723      
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.2% 3.2% 3.6% 3.8% 26.0% 5.0%
Female 6.8% 2.9% 3.4% 3.7% 26.6% 7.9%

Capabilities

Bosnia’s armed forces are an uneasy amalgam of troops from all three formerly warring entities. Considerably reduced to a size that the country can afford, they likely have little capability to mount combat operations. Negotiations on NATO membership were opened in 2009, and there has been limited progress towards this ambition. Nonetheless, defence reforms have proceeded with this objective in mind, and the aim is to field small and mobile forces, including reserves, that are interoperable and compatible with NATO forces. Bosnian forces are capable of making contributions to international operations, particularly peacekeeping operations, and have identified an infantry company, a military police platoon and an EOD platoon as possible contributions. Bosnia has deployed forces to Iraq and Afghanistan.

ACTIVE 10,500 (Armed Forces 10,500)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Armed Forces 10,500

1 ops comd; 1 spt comd

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOUEVRE

Light

3 inf bde (1 recce coy, 3 inf bn, 1 arty bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 cbt spt bde (1 tk bn, 1 engr bn, 1 EOD bn, 1 int bn, 1 MP bn)

1 EOD bn

1 CBRN coy

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log comd (5 log bn)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 45 M60A3

APC APC (T) 20 M113A2

ARTY 224

TOWED 122mm 100 D-30

MRL 122mm 24 APRA 40

MOR 120mm 100 M-75

AT

MSL

SP 60: 8 9P122 Malyutka; 9 9P133 Malyutka; 32 BOV-1; 11 M-92

MANPATS 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 9K115 Metis (AT-7 Saxhorn); HJ-8; Milan

VLB MTU

MW Bozena

   Air Force and Air Defence Brigade 800
   FORCES BY ROLE

HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Bell 205; Mi-17 Hip H

1 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; Mi-8MTV Hip

1 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; SA342H/L Gazelle (HN-42/45M)

AIR DEFENCE

1 AD bn

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

FGA (7 J-22 Orao in store)

ATK (6 J-1 (J-21) Jastreb; 3 TJ-1(NJ-21) Jastreb all in store)

ISR (2 RJ-1 (IJ-21) Jastreb* in store)

TRG (1 G-4 Super Galeb (N-62)* in store)

HELICOPTERS

MRH 13: 4 Mi-8MTV Hip; 1 Mi-17 Hip H; 1 SA-341H Gazelle (HN-42); 7 SA-342L Gazelle (HN-45M)

TPT 26 Medium 11 Mi-8 Hip Light 15 Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois)

TRG 1 Mi-34 Hermit

AD

SAM

SP 27: 1 Strela-10M3 (SA-13 Gopher); 20 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful); 6 Strela-1 (SA-9 Gaskin)

MANPAD 9K34 Strela-3 (SA-14 Gremlin); 9K310 (SA-16 Gimlet)

GUNS 764

SP 169: 20mm 9 BOV-3 SPAAG; 30mm 154: 38 M53; 116 M-53-59; 57mm 6 ZSU 57/2

TOWED 595: 20mm 468: 32 M-55A2, 4 M38, 1 M55 A2B1, 293 M55 A3/A4, 138 M75; 23mm 38: 29 ZU-23, 9 GSh-23; 30mm 33 M-53; 37mm 7 Type-55; 40mm 49: 31 L60, 16 L70, 2 M-12

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:


Constitution: Codified constitution within Dayton Peace Agreement (1995)

Specific legislation: ‘Law on participation of military, police, state and other employees in peacekeeping operations and other activities conducted abroad’

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the members of the Presidency (2003 ‘Defence Law’ Art. 9, 13)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 79

Democratic Republic of the Congo

UN • MONUSCO 5 obs

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 9

OSCE • Serbia 2

FOREIGN FORCES

Part of EUFOR – Operation Althea unless otherwise stated.

Albania 1

Armenia OSCE 2

Austria 314; 1 inf bn HQ; 1 recce pl; 1 inf coy; 3 SA316 Allouette III • OSCE 1

Bulgaria 18

Canada OSCE 1

Chile 15

Croatia OSCE 2

Czech Republic 2 • OSCE 2

Finland 8 • OSCE 1

France 2 • OSCE 3

Germany OSCE 3

Greece 2

Hungary 157; 1 inf coy • OSCE 1

Ireland 7 • OSCE 6

Italy OSCE 8

Kyrgyzstan OSCE 1

Luxembourg 1

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of 11

Moldova OSCE 1

Netherlands 3

Poland 34 • OSCE 2

Portugal OSCE 1

Romania 37

Russia OSCE 1

Slovakia 35 • OSCE 1

Slovenia 14

Spain 12 • OSCE 1

Sweden 2

Switzerland 20

Turkey 229; 1 inf coy

United Kingdom 4 • OSCE 5

United States OSCE 10

Bulgaria

Bulgaria BLG
         
Bulgarian Lev L 2012 2013 2014
GDP L 80.1bn 83.5bn  
  US$ 51bn 54.4bn  
per capita US$ 7,033 7,582  
Growth % 0.78 1.20  
Inflation % 2.39 2.05  
Def exp L 1.1bn    
  US$ 723m    
Def bdgt a L 1bn 1.1bn 1.1bn
  US$ 659m 751m  
FMA (US) US$ 9m 9m 7m
US$1=L   1.52 1.47  
a Excludes military pensions
         
Population 6,981,642      
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.3% 2.3% 3.1% 3.5% 24.0% 7.6%
Female 6.9% 2.2% 2.9% 3.4% 25.5% 11.3%

Capabilities

The armed forces’ tasks are territorial defence, peacetime domestic-security, and international peacekeeping and security missions. An Armed Forces Development Plan in 2010 and a new White Paper in 2011 outlined the intent to replace Soviet-era equipment, and the armed forces are due to transition to a modified force structure by the end of 2014. The aim is to achieve smaller, more balanced armed forces capable of multiple tasks. Funding shortages have curtailed or delayed some procurement, and the ambition to acquire a more modern fighter type for the air force has yet to be fulfilled. The Bulgarian armed forces contributed to ISAF, exercise regularly at the national level and also participate in NATO exercises.

ACTIVE 31,300 (Army 16,300 Navy 3,450 Air 6,700 Central Staff 4,850) Paramilitary 16,000

RESERVE 303,000 (Army 250,500 Navy 7,500 Air 45,000)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 16,300

Forces are being reduced in number.

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bde

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 recce bn

Mechanised

2 mech bde

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty regt

1 engr regt

1 NBC bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 80 T-72

RECCE Maritza NBC

AIFV 160: 90 BMP-1; 70 BMP-2/3

APC 127

APC (T) 100 MT-LB

APC (W) 27: 20 BTR-60; 7 M1117 ASV

ARTY 311

SP122mm 48 2S1

TOWED152mm 24 D-20

MRL 122mm 24 BM-21

MOR 120mm 215 2S11 SP Tundzha

AT

MSL

SP 24 9P148 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel)

MANPATS 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 9K113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel); (9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger) in store)

GUNS 126: 100mm 126 MT-12; 85mm (150 D-44 in store)

AD

SAM

SP 24 9K33 Osa (SA-8 Gecko)

MANPAD 9K32 Strela‡ (SA-7 Grail)

GUNS 400 100mm KS-19 towed/57mm S-60 towed/23mm ZSU-23-4 SP/ZU-23 towed

RADARSLAND GS-13 Long Eye (veh); SNAR-1 Long Trough (arty); SNAR-10 Big Fred (veh, arty); SNAR-2/-6 Pork Trough (arty); Small Fred/Small Yawn (veh, arty)

AEV MT-LB

ARV T-54/T-55; MTP-1; MT-LB

VLB BLG67; TMM

Navy 3,450

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 4

FRIGATES 4

FFGM 3 Drazki (BEL Wielingen) with 2 twin lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 GMLS with RIM-7P Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 single 533mm ASTT with L5 HWT, 1 sextuple 375mm MLE 54 Creusot-Loire A/S mor, 1 100mm gun

FFM 1 Smeli (FSU Koni) with 1 twin lnchr with 2 Osa-M (SA-N-4 Gecko) SAM, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2, 2 twin 76mm gun

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 6

PCFGM 1 Mulnaya (FSU Tarantul II) with 2 twin lnchr with P-15M Termit-M (SS-N-2C Styx) AShM, 2 quad lnchr (manual aiming) with Strela-2 (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM, 1 76mm gun

PCM 2 Reshitelni (FSU Pauk I) with 1 Strela-2 (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM (manual aiming), 4 single 406mm TT, 2 RBU 1200, 1 76mm gun

PBFG 3 Osa I/II† (FSU) with 4 P-15/P-15U Termit (SS-N-2A/B Styx) AShM

MINE COUNTERMEASURES 6

MHC 1 Tsibar (Tripartite – BEL Flower)

MSC 3 Briz (FSU Sonya)

MSI 2 Olya, less than 100 tonnes (FSU)

AMPHIBIOUS 1

LCU 1 Vydra

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 15: 1 ADG; 2 AGS; 2 AOL; 1 AORL; 1 ARS; 2 AT; 1 AX; 2 YDT; 1 YPT; 2 YTR

   Naval Aviation

HELICOPTERSASW 3 AS565MB Panther

Air Force 6,700

Flying hours 30–40 hrs/yr

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/ISR

1 sqn with MiG-21bis/UM Fishbed

1 sqn with MiG-29A/UB Fulcrum

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with Su-25K/UBK Frogfoot

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-30 Clank; C-27J Spartan; L-410UVP-E; PC-12M

TRAINING

1 sqn with L-39ZA Albatros

1 sqn with PC-9M

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-24D/V Hind D/E

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AS532AL Cougar; Bell 206 Jet Ranger; Mi-17 Hip H

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 42 combat capable

FTR 16: 12 MiG-29A Fulcrum; 4 MiG-29UB Fulcrum

FGA 12: 10 MiG-21bis Fishbed; 2 MiG-21UM Mongol B (to be withdrawn by end-2014)

ATK 14: 10 Su-25K Frogfoot; 4 Su-25UBK Frogfoot (to be withdrawn by end-2014)

ISR 1 An-30 Clank

TPT 7: Medium 3 C-27J Spartan; Light 4: 1 An-2T Colt; 2 L-410UVP-E; 1 PC-12M

TRG 12: 6 L-39ZA Albatros; 6 PC-9M (basic)

HELICOPTERS

ATK 6 Mi-24D/V Hind D/E

MRH 6 Mi-17 Hip H

TPT 18: Medium 12 AS532AL Cougar; Light 6 Bell 206 Jet Ranger

UAV EW Yastreb-2S

AD

SAM S-300 (SA-10 Grumble); S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline towed); S-125 Pechora (SA-3 Goa); S-200 (SA-5 Gammon); 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful)

MSL

AAM IR R-3 (AA-2 Atoll)‡ R-73 (AA-11 Archer) SARH R-27R (AA-10 Alamo A)

ASM Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge); Kh-23 (AS-7 Kerry)‡; Kh-25 (AS-10 Karen)

Paramilitary 16,000

   Border Guards 12,000

Ministry of Interior

   FORCES BY ROLE

Paramilitary 12 regt

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 26

PB 18: 1 Damen Stan 4207; 9 Grif (FSU Zhuk); 3 Nesebar (FSU Neustadt); 5 Lurssen 21

PBF 8 Baltic

   Security Police 4,000
 

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1991)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the president upon request from the Council of Ministers and upon approval by the National Assembly (Art. 84 XI)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 416; 1 mech inf coy

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 18

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 2 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 11

OSCE • Kosovo 1

OSCE • Serbia 1

Croatia

Croatia CRO
         
Croatian Kuna k 2012 2013 2014
GDP k 336bn 351bn  
  US$ 57.1bn 60.1bn  
per capita US$ 12,972 13,655  
Growth % -1.98 -0.20  
Inflation % 3.43 3.16  
Def bdgt k 4.78bn 4.55bn 4.28bn
  US$ 827m 813m  
FMA (US) US$ 3m 3m 2.5m
US$1=k   5.78 5.60  
         
Population 4,475,611      
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.5% 3.2% 3.1% 3.4% 24.2% 7.0%
Female 7.1% 3.0% 3.0% 3.3% 25.0% 10.5%

Capabilities

Croatia continues to work on the long-term goals laid out in its 2005 defence review and the associated 2006–2015 long-term development plan, as well as the National Security Strategy, Defence Strategy and Military Strategy; the latter details the armed forces’ development and modernisation strategy. Military tasks cover national sovereignty, the defence of Croatia and its allies, the ability to participate in crisis-response operations overseas, and support to civil institutions. Croatia joined NATO in 2009 and defence-policy focus is directed at further integration into NATO structures and planning processes. In October 2012, its armed forces were formally integrated into NATO. The country contributes to ISAF and also provides support to UN missions. It has declared reaction forces to NATO and EU missions; these can deploy within Europe. Force modernisation and re-equipment plans have been hampered by the economic downturn.

ACTIVE 16,550 (Army 11,250 Navy 1,600 Air 1,850 Joint 1,850) Paramilitary 3,000

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Joint 1,850 (General Staff)

 

Army 11,250

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bn

MANOEUVRE


Armoured

1 armd bde

Light

1 mot inf bde

Other

1 inf trg regt

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty/MRL regt

1 AT regt

1 ADA regt

1 engr regt

1 int bn

1 MP regt

1 NBC bn

1 sigs regt

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 75 M-84

AIFV 102 M-80

APC 139

APC (T) 15 BTR-50

APC (W) 108: 1 BOV-VP; 23 LOV OP; 84 Patria AMV

PPV 16: 4 Cougar HE; 12 Maxxpro

ARTY 215

SP 122mm 8 2S1

TOWED 64: 122mm 27 D-30; 130mm 19 M-46H1; 155mm 18 M-1H1

MRL 39: 122mm 37: 6 M91 Vulkan 31 BM-21 Grad; 128mm 2 LOV RAK M91 R24

MOR 104: 82mm 29 LMB M96; 120mm 75: 70 M-75; 5 UBM 52

AT MSL

SP 28 POLO BOV 83

MANPATS 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 9K115 Metis (AT-7 Saxhorn); 9K113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel); Milan (reported)

AD

SP 9 Strijela-10 CRO

GUNS 96

SP 20mm 39 BOV-3 SP

TOWED 20mm 57 M55A4

ARV M84A1; WZT-3

VLB 3 MT-55A

MW Bozena; 1 Rhino

Navy 1,600

Navy HQ at Split

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 5

PCGF 1 Koncar with 2 twin lnchr with RBS-15B AShM, 1 57mm gun

PCG 4:

2 Helsinki with 4 twin lnchr with RBS-15M AShM, 1 57mm gun

2 Kralj with 2–4 twin lnchr with RBS-15B AShM, 1 AK630 CIWS, 1 57mm gun

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURESMHI 1 Korcula

AMPHIBIOUS

LCT 2 Cetina with 1 quad lnchr with Strela-2 (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM

LCVP 3: 2 Type-21; 1 Type-22

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 9: YDT 2; YFU 5; YTM 2

MSLTACTICALAShM 3 RBS-15K

   Marines
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

2 indep mne coy

   Coast Guard
   FORCES BY ROLE

Two divisions, headquartered in Split (1st div) and Pula (2nd div).

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS PB 4 Mirna

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT AX 5

Air Force and Air Defence 1,850

Flying hours  50 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 (mixed) sqn with MiG-21bis/UMD Fishbed

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-32 Cline

TRAINING

1 sqn with PC-9M; Z-242L

1 hel sqn with Bell 206B Jet Ranger II

FIRE FIGHTING

1 sqn with AT-802FA Fire Boss; CL-415

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with Mi-8MTV Hip H; Mi-8T Hip C; Mi-171Sh

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 10 combat capable

FGA 10: 6 MiG-21bis Fishbed; 4 MiG-21UMD Fishbed

TPTLight 2 An-32 Cline

TRG 25: 20 PC-9M; 5 Z-242L

FF 11: 5 AT-802FA Fire Boss; 6 CL-415

HELICOPTERS

MRH 11 Mi-8MTV Hip H

TPT 21 Medium 13: 3 Mi-8T Hip C; 10 Mi-171Sh; Light 8 Bell 206B Jet Ranger II

UAV • ISR Medium Hermes 450

AD SAM

SP S-300 (SA-10 Grumble); 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 Gaskin)

MANPAD 9K34 Strela-3 (SA-14 Gremlin); 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet)

RADAR 11: 5 FPS-117; 3 S-600; 3 PRV-11

MSL AAMIR R-3S (AA-2 Atoll)‡; R-60 (AA-8 Aphid)

Paramilitary 3,000

   Police 3,000 armed
 

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (2004)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the parliament (Art. 7 II); simplified procedure for humanitarian aid and military exercises

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 181

Bosnia-Herzegovina

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 2

Cyprus

UN • UNFICYP 2

India/Pakistan

UN • UNMOGIP 9 obs

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 1

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 2

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 22

OSCE • Kosovo 5

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 7 obs

Cyprus

Cyprus CYP
         
Cypriot Pound C£ 2012 2013 2014
GDP 16.4bn 16bn  
  US$ 23bn 21.8bn  
per capita US$ 26,389 24,706  
Growth % -2.43 -8.71  
Inflation % 3.09 1.00  
Def bdgt 350m 347m 319m
  US$ 450m 460m  
US$1=C£   0.78 0.75  
         
Population 1,155,403      
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 8.1% 3.8% 4.8% 4.9% 24.7% 4.8%
Female 7.7% 3.3% 3.9% 4.0% 23.9% 6.2%

Capabilities

The country’s national guard is predominantly a land force supplemented by small air and maritime units. It is intended to act as a deterrent to any possible Turkish incursion, and to provide enough opposition until military support can be provided by its primary ally, Greece. The air wing has a small number of rotary- and fixed-wing utility platforms, including Mi-35 attack helicopters. Key procurements include SAR helicopters and T-80U MBTs. But readiness and morale are not thought to be high. Expeditionary deployments have been limited to a few officers joining UN and EU missions. It is possible that Cyprus’s economic fragility may depress capability via effects on general funding and maintenance, as well as procurement aspirations.

ACTIVE 12,000 (National Guard 12,000) Paramilitary 750

Conscript liability 24 months

RESERVE 50,000 (National Guard 50,000)

Reserve service to age 50 (officers dependent on rank; military doctors to age 60)

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

National Guard 1,300 regular; 10,700 conscript (total 12,000)

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 comd (regt) (1 SF bn)

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 lt armd bde (2 armd bn, 1 armd inf bn)

Mechanised

1 (1st) mech inf div (1 armd recce bn, 2 mech inf bn)

1 (2nd) mech inf div (1 armd recce bn, 2 armd bn, 2 mech inf bn)

Light

3 (4th, 7th & 8th) lt inf bde (2 lt inf regt)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty comd (8 arty bn)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 (3rd) spt bde

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 164: 82 T-80U; 30 AMX-30G; 52 AMX-30B2

RECCE 124 EE-9 Cascavel

AIFV 43 BMP-3

APC 294

APC (T) 168 Leonidas

APC (W) 126 VAB (incl variants)

ARTY 452

SP 155mm 24: 12 Mk F3; 12 Zuzana

TOWED 104: 100mm 20 M-1944; 105mm 72 M-56; 155mm 12 TR-F-1

MRL 22: 122mm 4 BM-21; 128mm 18 M-63 Plamen

MOR 302: 81mm 170 E-44; (70+ M1/M9 in store); 107mm 20 M2/M30; 120mm 112 RT61

AT

MSL

SP 33: 15 EE-3 Jararaca with Milan; 18 VAB with HOT

MANPATS 115: 70 HOT; 45 Milan

RCL 153: 106mm 144 M40A1; 90mm 9 EM-67

RL 1,000: 112mm 1,000 APILAS

AD

SAM 48

SP 6 9K322 Tor (SA-15 Gauntlet); Mistral

STATIC 12 Aspide

MANPAD 30 Mistral

GUNSTOWED 60: 20mm 36 M-55; 35mm 24 GDF-003 (with Skyguard)

ARV 2 AMX-30D; 1 BREM-1

   Maritime Wing
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 (coastal defence) AShM bty with MM-40 Exocet AShM

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 6

PBF 4: 2 Rodman 55; 2 Vittoria

PB 2: 1 Esterel; 1 Kyrenia (GRC Dilos)

MSLAShM 24 MM-40 Exocet

   Air Wing

AIRCRAFT

TPTLight 2: 1 AT-802F Air Tractor; 1 BN-2B Islander

TRG 1 PC-9

HELICOPTERS

ATK 11 Mi-35P Hind

MRH 7: 3 AW139 (SAR); 4 SA342L1 Gazelle (with HOT for anti-armour role)

TPT Light 2 Bell 206L-3 Long Ranger

   Paramilitary 750+
   Armed Police 500+
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

1 (rapid-reaction) paramilitary unit

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (W) 2 VAB VTT

HELICOPTERSMRH 2 Bell 412 SP

   Maritime Police 250

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 10

PBF 5: 2 Poseidon; 1 Shaldag; 2 Vittoria

PB 5 SAB-12

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1960)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By parliament, but president has the right of final veto (Art. 50)

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 2

FOREIGN FORCES

Argentina UNFICYP 266; 2 inf coy; 1 hel pl

Austria UNFICYP 4

Brazil UNFICYP 1

Canada UNFICYP 1

Chile UNFICYP 14

China UNFICYP 2

Croatia UNFICYP 2

Greece Army: 950; ε200 (officers/NCO seconded to Greek-Cypriot National Guard)

Hungary UNFICYP 77; 1 inf pl

Paraguay UNFICYP 14

Serbia UNFICYP 46; elm 1 inf coy

Slovakia UNFICYP 157; elm 1 inf coy; 1 engr pl

United Kingdom 2,620; 2 inf bn; 1 hel sqn with 4 Bell 412 Twin Huey • UNFICYP 337: 1 inf coy

TERRITORY WHERE THE GOVERNMENT DOES NOT EXERCISE EFFECTIVE CONTROL

Data here represent the de facto situation on the northern half of the island. This does not imply international recognition as a sovereign state.

Capabilities

ACTIVE 3,500 (Army 3,500) Paramilitary 150

Conscript liability 24 months

RESERVE 26,000 (first line 11,000 second line 10,000 third line 5,000)

Reserve liability to age 50.

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army ε3,500

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

7 inf bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

ARTYMOR120mm 73

AT

MSLMANPATS 6 Milan

RCL106mm 36

Paramilitary

   Armed Police ε150
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 (police) SF unit

   Coast Guard

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 6

PCC 5: 2 SG45/SG46; 1 Rauf Denktash; 2 US Mk 5

PB 1

FOREIGN FORCES

Turkey

Army ε43,000

1 army corps HQ, 1 armd bde, 2 mech inf div, 1 avn comd

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 348: 8 M48A2 (trg); 340 M48A5T1/2

APC (T) 627: 361 AAPC (incl variants); 266 M113 (incl variants)

ARTY

SP 155mm 90 M-44T

TOWED 102: 105mm 72 M101A1; 155mm 18 M-114A2; 203mm 12 M115

MRL 122mm 6 T-122

MOR 450: 81mm 175; 107mm 148 M-30; 120mm 127 HY-12

AT

MSL MANPATS 114: 66 Milan; 48 TOW

RCL 106mm 192 M40A1

AD GUNS

TOWED 20mm Rh 202; 35mm 16 GDF-003; 40mm 48 M1

AIRCRAFTTPTLight 3 Cessna 185 (U-17)

HELICOPTERTPT 4 Medium 1 AS532UL Cougar Light 3 Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 1 PB

Czech Republic

Czech Republic CZE
         
Czech Koruna Kc 2012 2013 2014
GDP Kc 3.92tr 4.04tr  
  US$ 196bn 203bn  
per capita US$ 18,579 19,243  
Growth % -1.25 0.30  
Inflation % 3.29 2.25  
Def exp Kc 41.5bn    
  US$ 2.12bn    
Def bdgt a Kc 43.5bn 42bn 42bn
  US$ 2.22bn 2.18bn  
FMA (US) US$ 5m 5m 3m
US$1=Kc   19.58 19.27  
a Includes military pensions
         
Population 10,162,921      
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 6.9% 2.5% 3.2% 3.4% 25.7% 7.1%
Female 6.5% 2.4% 3.0% 3.2% 25.6% 10.5%

Capabilities

According to the 2012 Defence Strategy, the Czech armed forces are intended to retain the capability to act autonomously, however Prague has earmarked a brigade-sized task force as its contribution NATO’s collective defence planning. Defence cooperation with the other three members of the Visegrad group is also planned, with contributions earmarked for a multinational CBRN battalion and a manoeuvre battlegroup. The armed forces have reached a high level of capability as a result of military reform and restructuring, as well as equipment improvements and operational experience in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. But maintaining these standards will prove challenging, with the end of the ISAF mission and pressure on defence spending.

ACTIVE 23,650 (Army 13,000, Air 5,950, Other 4,850) Paramilitary 3,100

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 13,000

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF gp

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISR/EW bde (1 recce bn, 1 EW bn)

Armoured

1 (7th) mech bde (1 armd bn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 mot inf bn)

Mechanised

1 (4th) rapid reaction bde (2 mech bn, 1 mot inf bn, 1 AB bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 (13th) arty bde (2 arty bn)

1 engr bde (3 engr bn, 1 EOD bn)

1 CBRN bde (2 CBRN bn)

1 sigs bn

1 CIMIC pl

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde

   Active Reserve
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

14 (territorial defence) comd

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 armd coy

Light

14 inf coy (1 per territorial comd) (3 inf pl, 1 cbt spt pl, 1 log pl)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 30 T-72M4CZ; (93 T-72 in store)

AIFV 206: 103 BMP-2; 103 Pandur II (inc variants); (98 BMP-1; 82 BMP-2; 34 BPzV all in store)

APC 21:

APC (T) (17 OT-90 in store)

APC (W) (5 OT-64 in store)

PPV 21 Dingo 2

ARTY 146:

SP 152mm 95 M-77 Dana (inc 6 trg); (35 more in store)

MOR 120mm 51: 43 M-1982 (inc 3 trg); 8 SPM-85; (42 M-1982 in store);

AT MSLMANPATS 9P135 Konkurs

RADAR LAND 3 ARTHUR

ARV 4+: MT-72; VT-72M4CZ; VPV-ARV; WPT-TOPAS; 4 Pandur II

VLB AM-50; MT-55A

MW UOS-155 Belarty

Air Force 5,950

Principal task is to secure Czech airspace. This mission is fulfilled within NATO Integrated Extended Air Defence System (NATINADS) and, if necessary, by means of the Czech national reinforced air-defence system. The air force also provides CAS for the army SAR, and performs a tpt role.

Flying hours 120hrs/yr cbt ac 150 for tpt ac

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with Gripen C/D

1 sqn with L-159 ALCA/L-159T

TRANSPORT

2 sqn with A319CJ; C-295M; CL-601 Challenger; L-410 Turbolet; Yak-40 Codling

TRAINING

1 sqn with L-39ZA*

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-24/Mi-35 Hind

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-17 Hip H; Mi-171Sh

1 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; Mi-17 Hip H; PZL W-3A Sokol

AIR DEFENCE

1 (25th) SAM bde (2 AD gp)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 47 combat capable

FGA 14: 12 Gripen C (JAS 39C); 2 Gripen D (JAS 39D)

ATK 24: 20 L-159 ALCA; 4 L-159T

TPT 17: Light 14: 4 C-295M; 8 L-410 Turbolet; 2 Yak-40 Codling; PAX 3: 2 A319CJ; 1 CL-601 Challenger

TRG 26: 1 EW-97 Eurostar; 8 L-39C Albatros; 9 L-39ZA*; 8 Z-142C

HELICOPTERS

ATK 24: 6 Mi-24 Hind D; 18 Mi-35 Hind E

MRH 8 Mi-17 Hip H

TPT 30: Medium 20: 4 Mi-8 Hip; 16 Mi-171Sh (med tpt); Light 10 PZL W3A Sokol

AD

SAM RBS-70; 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail) (available for trg RBS-70 gunners)

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9M Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

BOMBS

Laser-guided: GBU Paveway

Joint Forces Support Units

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 engr bde (3 engr bn; 2 (rescue) engr coy)

1 CIMIC/psyops coy (1 CIMIC pl; 1 psyops pl)

1 CBRN bde (2 CBRN bn)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 (14th) bde (1 spt bn; 1 supply bn)

Other Forces

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

1 (presidential) gd bde (2 bn)

1 (presidential) gd coy

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 int gp

1 (central) MP comd

3 (regional) MP comd

1 (protection service) MP comd

Paramilitary 3,100

   Border Guards 3,000
 
   Internal Security Forces 100
 

Cyber

In 2011, a National Security Authority was established to supervise the protection of classified information and perform tasks related to communications and information-systems security. A Cyber Security Strategy was published in 2011 to coordinate government approaches to network security and create a framework for legislative developments, international cooperative activity and the development of technical means, as well as promoting network security. It also announced the creation of a national CERT agency.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1992), Art. 39, 43

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: External deployments require approval by the parliament. As an exception, such as in urgent cases, the government can decide on such a deployment for up to 60 days with the aim of fulfilling international treaty obligations concerning collective defence.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 182

UN • UNAMA 2 obs

Armenia/Azerbaijan

OSCE • Minsk Conference 1

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 2

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 2

Democratic Republic of the Congo

UN • MONUSCO 3 obs

Egypt

MFO 3

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 38

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 7

OSCE • Kosovo 1

UN • UNMIK 1 obs

Denmark

Denmark DNK
         
Danish Krone kr 2012 2013 2014
GDP kr 1.86tr 1.92tr  
  US$ 314bn 328bn  
per capita US$ 56,202 58,668  
Growth % -0.57 0.84  
Inflation % 2.41 2.00  
Def exp kr 25.6bn    
  US$ 4.42bn    
Def bdgt a kr 25.6bn 25.6bn 26.3bn
  US$ 4.42bn 4.51bn  
US$1=kr   5.79 5.67  
a Includes military pensions
         
Population 5,556,452      
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 8.8% 3.4% 3.2% 2.8% 23.0% 8.0%
Female 8.4% 3.2% 3.1% 2.8% 23.2% 10.0%

Capabilities

Denmark’s armed forces are geared towards participation in international missions. They also conduct domestic tasks, including SAR, airspace defence and surveillance, and have contributed to both the Baltic and Icelandic air policing missions. The defence agreement 2013–17 details a range of tasks for the armed forces, from war-fighting and counter-insurgency to non-combatant evacuation; and the forces themselves should be increasingly ‘joint’, well-trained and capable of rapid response. Some civilian-related tasks could be outsourced. Acquisition of the C-130J will aid tactical mobility, and Denmark is a partner in the F-35 programme. Notwithstanding equipment reductions, such as in long-range ATGW, the ground force has benefited from combat experience in Afghanistan. Denmark has maintained a battalion-plus deployment to ISAF and contributed to a number of UN peacekeeping missions. As with other Nordic nations, Denmark is increasingly focused on the Arctic, having formed a joint Arctic Command in 2012 in Nuuk, Greenland. Due to Denmark’s ‘no’ vote to the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, it cannot participate in EU-led military operations or the development of EU military capabilities. It is, however, a member of NATO and involved in developing the Nordic defence co-operation grouping.

ACTIVE 17,200 (Army 7,950 Navy 3,000 Air 3,150 Joint 3,100)

Conscript liability 4–12 months, most voluntary

RESERVES 53,500 (Army 40,800 Navy 4,500 Air Force 5,300 Service Corps 2,900)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 6,950; 1,000 conscript (total 7,950)

Div and bde HQ are responsible for trg only; if necessary, can be transformed into operational formations

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

1 div HQ

2 bde HQ

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF unit

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 recce bn

1 ISTAR bn

Armoured

1 tk bn

Mechanised

5 armd inf bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 SP arty bn

1 cbt engr bn

1 EOD bn

1 MP bn

1 sigs regt (1 sigs bn, 1 EW coy)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 construction bn

1 log regt (1 spt bn, 1 log bn, 1 maint bn, 1 med bn)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 55 Leopard 2A4/5

RECCE 113: 22 Eagle 1; 91 Eagle IV

AIFV 45 CV9030 Mk II

APC 494

APC (T) 343 M113 (incl variants); (196 more in store awaiting disposal)

APC (W) 111 Piranha III (incl variants)

PPV 40 Cougar

ARTY 44

SP 155mm 24 M109

MRL 227mm (12 MLRS in store awaiting disposal)

MORTOWED 120mm 20 Soltam K6B1

AT

MSL MANPATS 20 TOW

RCL 84mm 349 Carl Gustav

AD SAMMANPAD FIM-92A Stinger

RADARLAND ARTHUR

ARV 11 Bergepanzer 2

VLB 10 Biber

MW 14 910-MCV-2

Navy 2,850; 150 conscript (total 3,000)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 5

DESTROYERS DDGHM 1 Iver Huitfeldt with 4 quad lnchr with RGM-84 Harpoon Block II AShM, 1 32-cell Mk41 VLS with SM-2 IIIA SAM, 2 12-cell Mk56 VLS with RIM-162 SAM, 2 twin 324mm TT with MU90 LWT, 2 76mm guns, (capacity 1 med hel) (2 additional vessels under construction; expected ISD 2014)

FRIGATES FFH 4 Thetis with 2 twin lnchr with Stinger SAM, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 Super Lynx Mk90B)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 9

PSO 2 Knud Rasmussen with 1 76mm gun, 1 hel landing platform

PCC 7: 1 Agdlek; 6 Diana

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 6

MCI 4 MSF MK-I

MSD 2 Holm

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 26

ABU 2 (primarily used for MARPOL duties)

AE 1 Sleipner

AG 2 Absalon (flexible support ships) with 2 octuple VLS with RGM-84 Block 2 Harpoon 2 AShM, 4 twin lnchr with Stinger SAM, 3 12-cell Mk 56 VLS with RIM-162B Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 twin 324mm TT, 2 Millenium CIWS, 1 127mm gun (capacity 2 LCP, 7 MBT or 40 vehicles; 130 troops)

AGB 3: 1 Thorbjørn; 2 Danbjørn

AGE 1 Dana

AGS 3 Ska 11

AGSC 2 Holm

AKL 2 Seatruck

AX 1 Søløven (used as diving trainer)

AXL 2 Holm

AXS 2 Svanen

YPL 3

YTL 2

Air Force 3,050; 100 conscript (total 3,150)

Flying hours 165 hrs/yr

   Tactical Air Comd
   FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

2 sqn with F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE

1 sqn with Super Lynx Mk90B

SEARCH & RESCUE/TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AW101 Merlin

1 sqn with AS550 Fennec (ISR)

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130J-30 Hercules; CL-604 Challenger (MP/VIP)

TRAINING

1 unit with MFI-17 Supporter (T-17)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 45 combat capable

FTR 45: 35 F-16AM Fighting Falcon; 10 F-16BM Fighting Falcon (30 operational)

TPT 7: Medium 4 C-130J-30 Hercules; PAX 3 CL-604 Challenger (MP/VIP)

TRG 27 MFI-17 Supporter (T-17)

HELICOPTERS

ASW 7 Super Lynx Mk90B

MRH 8 AS550 Fennec (ISR) (4 more non-operational)

TPT Medium 14 AW101 Merlin (8 SAR; 6 Tpt)

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L; IIR AIM-9X; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

ASM AGM-65 Maverick

BOMBS

LGB/INS/GPS-guided: GBU-31 JDAM; EGBU-12/GBU-24 Paveway LGB

   Control and Air Defence Group

1 Control and Reporting Centre, 1 Mobile Control and Reporting Centre. 4 Radar sites.

Reserves

   Home Guard (Army) 40,800 reservists (to age 50)
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

2 regt cbt gp (3 mot inf bn, 1 arty bn)

5 (local) def region (up to 2 mot inf bn)

   Home Guard (Navy) 4,500 reservists (to age 50) organised into 30 Home Guard units
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 31

PB 31: 18 MHV800; 1 MHV850; 12 MHV900

   Home Guard (Air Force) 5,300 reservists (to age 50)
 
   Home Guard (Service Corps) 2,900 reservists
 

Cyber

Denmark has a national CERT. Within the army, the 3rd Electronic Warfare Company is in charge of exploiting and disrupting enemy communications. A cyber-warfare unit within the Defence Intelligence Service is planned, with the aim of protecting military technology.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1849)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: On approval by the parliament (Art. 19 II)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 317; 1 mech BG; 1 C-130J-30

UN • UNAMA 1 obs

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 3

Gulf of Aden & Somali Basin

NATO Operation Ocean Shield 1 CL-604 (MP)

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 2; 3 obs

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 10 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 36

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 13; 2 obs

Estonia

Estonia EST
         
Euro € a   2012 2013 2014
GDP 18.2bn 19.3bn  
  US$ 21.9bn 24.2bn  
per capita US$ 16,320 18,027  
Growth % 3.22 2.99  
Inflation % 4.20 3.20  
Def bdgt a 340m 361m 387m
  US$ 437m 480m  
FMA (US) US$ 2m 2.4m 2.4m
US$1=€   0.78 0.75  
a Includes military pensions
         
Population 1,266,375      
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.9% 2.6% 3.5% 3.8% 21.6% 6.0%
Female 7.5% 2.4% 3.4% 3.9% 25.1% 12.2%

Capabilities

Estonia’s conscript-based armed forces are small and the nation’s security against external threats is based on NATO membership. The country is an enthusiastic contributor to NATO organisation and missions where feasible. Estonia has contributed personnel to ISAF, as well as to UN peacekeeping operations, and is a member of the EU’s Nordic Battlegroup. The armed forces are heavily land-focused, with just one offshore patrol vessel in service with the navy (and some mine countermeasures vessels), and no aircraft capable of airspace defence. Reliance is placed on a NATO Air Policing Mission for airspace defence. Following the substantial cyber attack on Estonian systems in 2007, Tallinn is the location for NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. This conducts theoretical and practical training for member states’ personnel. Major procurement plans centre around the development of an air-defence system and radars. A new Defence Development Plan (for 2013–22) was passed in 2012 and noted Estonia’s difficulties in maintaining defence spending amid the global financial crisis; nonetheless, the plan suggested that Tallinn will continue to meet its 2% of GDP spending target as required by NATO. The plan outlined an intention to double the number of infantry brigades (to two) by 2022, and to procure modern infantry fighting vehicles and armoured personnel carriers, anti-tank weapons and 155mm self-propelled howitzers.

ACTIVE 5,750 (Army 5,300 Navy 200 Air 250) Defence League 12,000

Conscript liability 8 months, officers and some specialists 11 months. (Conscripts cannot be deployed.)

RESERVE 30,000 (Joint 30,000)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 2,800; 2,500 conscript (total 5,300)

4 def region. All units except Scouts bn are reserve based

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 recce bn

Light

1 (1st) bde (2 inf bn, 1 CSS bn)

3 indep inf bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bn

1 AD bn

1 engr bn

1 sigs bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bn

   Defence League 12,000

15 Districts

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC 130

APC (W) 117: 56 XA-180 Sisu; 40 XA-188 Sisu; 21 BTR-80

PPV 13: 6 Maxxpro; 7 Mamba

ARTY 334

TOWED 98: 105mm 32 H 61-37; 122mm 42 D-30 (H 63); 155mm 24 FH-70

MOR 230: 81mm 51: 41 B455; 10 NM 95; 120mm 179: 14 2B11; 165 41D

AT

MSL MANPAT Milan; IMI MAPATS

RCL 160+ 106mm: 30 M40A1; 84mm Carl Gustav; 90mm 130 PV-1110

AD SAM MANPAD Mistral

Navy 200

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPB 1 Ristna (FIN Rihtniemi) with 2 RBU 1200

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 4

MCD 1 Tasuja (DNK Lindormen)

MHC 3 Admiral Cowan (UK Sandown)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT • AGF 1 Admiral Pitka with 1 76mm gun

Air Force 250

Flying hours 120 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-2 Colt

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with R-44 Raven II

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT TPTLight 2 An-2 Colt

HELICOPTERSTPT Light 4 R-44 Raven II

Paramilitary

   Border Guard

The Estonian Border Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. Air support is provided by the Estonian Border Guard Aviation Corps.

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 22

PCO 1 Kindral Kurvits

PCC 1 Kou (FIN Silma)

PB 9: 1 Maru (FIN Viima); 8 (other)

PBR 11

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFTLCU 2

LOGISTICS & SUPPORT AGF 1 Balsam

AIRCRAFT TPTLight 2 L-410

HELICOPTERSTPT • 3 AW139

Cyber

Estonia established CERT-ee in 2006 and has further developed its cyber-security infrastructure after the cyber attacks of 2007. It adopted a national Cyber Security Strategy in 2008. As well as domestic capacities, Tallinn hosts the NATO Cooperative Cyber Security Centre of Excellence, established in 2008 to enhance NATO’s cyber-defence capability.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1992)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By parliament (Art. 128). Also, International Military Cooperation Act stipulates conditions for deployment abroad. For the collective defence purposes, ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty is considered a parliamentary decision that would allow Cabinet to deploy troops. The president, chairman of the parliament and chairman of the parliament’s State Defence Commission shall be immediately informed of such a decision. For other international operations, a separate parliamentary decision is necessary: the Ministry of Defence prepares a draft legal act and coordinates this with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Justice. It also asks the opinion of the chief of defence. The draft is then proposed to cabinet for approval and submission for parliamentary consideration.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 160; 1 mech inf coy; 1 mor det

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 8

UN • MINUSMA 1

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 2 obs

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 2

North Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 1: 1 MHC

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 2

Finland

Finland FIN
         
Euro €   2012 2013 2014
GDP 200bn 207bn  
  US$ 250bn 265bn  
per capita US$ 46,098 48,707  
Growth % -0.21 0.51  
Inflation % 3.16 2.90  
Def exp 2.8bn    
  US$ 3.6bn    
Def bdgt 2.82bn 2.87bn 2.75bn
  US$ 3.63bn 3.81bn  
US$1=€   0.78 0.75  
         
Population 5,266,114      
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 8.1% 3.0% 3.2% 3.1% 23.5% 8.0%
Female 7.8% 2.9% 3.1% 3.0% 23.1% 11.2%

Capabilities

The primary role of Finland’s armed forces is to act as a guarantor of national sovereignty by providing territorial defence, and its combination of a conscript/reserve-based structure with a modern equipment inventory is shaped to support this aim. All the armed services exercise regularly, with an increasingly joint emphasis, and the air force and navy particularly participate in multinational exercises. There are no planned changes to the key premises of Finland’s defence policy, such as territorial defence, non-alignment and general conscription. However, Finland has embarked on a wide-ranging defence reform process in a bid to reconcile defence priorities with funding and demographics (the number of available conscripts is reducing), with the process planned to complete by 2015. Current plans call for the disbandment of the Jaeger brigade, an engineer regiment, a coastal artillery battalion and two air force training wings by the end of 2014. In addition, currently independent signals, air-defence and artillery formations will be merged with existing manoeuvre brigades. The number of command levels will reduce from four to three, and the military provinces will cease to exist, with tasks divided between army command and regional offices.

ACTIVE 22,200 (Army 16,000 Navy 3,500 Air 2,700) Paramilitary 2,800

RESERVE 354,000 (Army 285,000 Navy 31,000 Air 38,000) Paramilitary 11,500

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 5,000; 11,000 conscript (total 16,000)

FORCES BY ROLE

Finland’s army maintains a mobilisation strength of about 285,000. In support of this requirement, two conscription cycles, each for about 15,000 conscripts, take place each year. After conscript training, reservist commitment is to the age of 60. Reservists are usually assigned to units within their local geographical area. All service appointments or deployments outside Finnish borders are voluntary for all members of the armed services. All brigades are reserve based.

   Reserve Organisations
   60,000 in manoeuvre forces and 225,000 in territorial forces
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bn

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

2 armd BG (regt)

Mechanised

2 (Karelia & Pori Jaeger) mech bde

Light

3 (Jaeger) bde

6 lt inf bde

Aviation

1 hel bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bde

1 AD regt

7 engr regt

3 sigs bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

Some log unit

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 100 Leopard 2A4

RECCE 34 BMP-1TJ

AIFV 212: 110 BMP-2; 102 CV90

APC 613

APC (T) 142: 40 MT-LBu; 102 MT-LBV

APC (W) 471: 260 XA-180/185 Sisu; 101 XA-202 Sisu; 48 XA-203 Sisu; 62 AMV (XA-360)

ARTY 647

SP 122mm 36 2S1 (PsH 74)

TOWED 324: 122mm 234 D-30 (H 63); 130mm 36 K 54; 155mm 54 K 83/K 98

MRL 227mm 22 M270 MLRS

MOR 120mm 265: 261 KRH 92; 4 XA-361 AMOS

AT MSL 100 Spike; TOW 2

HELICOPTERS

MRH 7: 5 Hughes 500D; 2 Hughes 500E

TPT Medium 16 NH90 TTH

UAV ISR Medium 11 ADS-95 Ranger

ADSAM

SP 36 +: 16 ASRAD (ITO 05); 20 Crotale NG (ITO 90); 9K37 Buk-M1 (ITO 96)

MANPAD: 86 RBS 70 (ITO 05/05M)

GUNS 23mm; 30mm; 35mm; 57mm

AEV 6 Leopard 2R CEV

ARV 27: 15 MTP-LB; 12 VT-55A

VLB 15+: BLG-60M2; 6 Leopard 2L; 9 SISU Leguan

MW Aardvark Mk 2; KMT T-55; RA-140 DS

Navy 1,600; 1,900 conscript (total 3,500)

FORCES BY ROLE

Naval Command HQ located at Turku; with two subordinate Naval Commands (Gulf of Finland and Archipelago Sea); 1 Naval bde; 3 spt elm (Naval Materiel Cmd, Naval Academy, Naval Research Institute)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 8

PBG 4 Rauma with 6 RBS-15SF3 (15SF) AShM, 1 sextuple Sadral lnchr with Mistral SAM

PCG 4 Hamina with 4 RBS-15 (15SF) AShM, 1 octuple VLS with Umkhonto SAM, 1 57mm gun

MINE WARFARE 19

MINE COUNTERMEASURES 13

MHSO 3 Katanpää (expected FOC 2014/15)

MSI 10: 7 Kiiski; 3 Kuha

MINELAYERSML 6:

2 Hameenmaa with 1 octuple VLS with Umkhonto SAM, 2 RBU 1200, up to 100–120 mines, 1 57mm gun

3 Pansio with 50 mines

1 Pohjanmaa with 2 sextruple Sadral lnchr with Mistral SAM, up to 100–150 mines, 1 57mm gun

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFT 51

LCU 1 Kampela

LCP 50

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 33

AG 3: 1 Louhi; 2 Hylje

AGB 7 (Board of Navigation control)

AKSL 9: 2 Hauki; 4 Hila; 3 Valas

AX 4: 3 Fabian Wrede; 1 Lokki

YFB 8

YTM 2 Haukipaa

   Coastal Defence

ARTYCOASTAL130mm 102: 30 K-53tk (static); 72 K-54 RT

MSLTACTICAL • 4 RBS-15K AShM

Air Force 1,950; 750 conscript (total 2,700)

3 Air Comds: Satakunta (West), Karelia (East), Lapland (North)

Flying hours 90–140 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

3 sqn with F/A-18C/D Hornet

ISR

1 (survey) sqn with Learjet 35A

TRANSPORT

1 flt with C-295M

4 (liaison) flt with PC-12NG

TRAINING

1 sqn with Hawk Mk50/51A/66* (air defence and ground attack trg)

1 unit with L-70 Vinka

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 107 combat capable

FGA 62: 55 F/A-18C Hornet; 7 F/A-18D Hornet

MP 1 F-27-400M

ELINT 1 C-295M

TPTLight 11: 2 C-295M; 3 Learjet 35A (survey; ECM trg; tgt-tow); 6 PC-12NG

TRG 73: 29 Hawk Mk50/51A*; 16 Hawk Mk66*; 28 L-70 Vinka

MSL AAM IR AIM-9 Sidewinder; IIR AIM-9X Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

Paramilitary

   Border Guard 2,800

Ministry of Interior. 4 Border Guard Districts and 2 Coast Guard Districts

   FORCES BY ROLE

MARITIME PATROL

1 sqn with Do-228 (maritime surv); AS332 Super Puma; Bell 412 (AB-412) Twin Huey; Bell 412EP (AB-412EP) Twin Huey;AW119KE Koala

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 54

PCC 3: 2 Tursas; 1 Merikarhu

PBO 3 Telkaa

PB 48

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFT LCAC 7

AIRCRAFTTPTLight 2 Do-228

HELICOPTERS

MRH 5: 4 Bell 412 (AB-412) Twin Huey; 1 Bell 412EP (AB-412EP) Twin Huey

TPT 7: Medium 3 AS332 Super Puma; Light 4 AW119KE Koala

   Reserve 11,500 reservists on mobilisation
 

Cyber

Finland has a national CERT, is involved in informal CERT communities and is a member of the European Government CERTs group (EGC). The country has announced the establishment of a common secure network in 2013 to protect military, police, border guard and government confidential networks.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (2000)

Specific legislation: ‘Act on Peace Support Operations’ (2000); ‘Act on Military Crisis Management (211/2006)’.

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By president upon proposal by government (Art. 129 of constitution) and after formal consultation of parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee (‘Act on Peace Support Operations’, Ch. 1, Section 2; ‘Act on Military Crisis Management (211/2006)’).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 100

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 8

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1

India/Pakistan

UN • UNMOGIP 6 obs

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 192; 1 inf coy

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 2

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 10

UN • MINUSMA 1

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 16 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 21

OSCE • Kosovo 1

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 6

France

France FRA
         
Euro €   2012 2013 2014
GDP 2.06tr 2.12tr  
  US$ 2.61tr 2.74tr  
per capita US$ 41,141 43,000  
Growth % 0.03 -0.07  
Inflation % 1.98 1.57  
Def bdgt a 39.1bn 39.4bn  
  US$ 50.3bn 52.4bn  
US$1=€   0.78 0.75  
a Includes pensions
         
Population 65,951,611      
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 9.6% 3.0% 3.1% 3.1% 22.5% 7.6%
Female 9.1% 2.9% 3.0% 3.0% 22.9% 10.3%

Capabilities

The 2013 Livre Blanc, published in April, attempts to sustain France’s ambition to retain the full spectrum of military capabilities, but with reductions in personnel and equipment. Despite cuts France remains one of the two pre-eminent defence powers in Europe, maintaining rapidly deployable armed forces, capable of self-sustainment and operation. This capacity was evident during Opération Serval in Mali. Also apparent were weaknesses, such as strategic lift and ISR. The size of the forces for such tasks, however, is being reduced. The 2008 Livre Blanc identified a ground force deployment of up to 30,000: the 2013 document reduces this to 15,000. Similarly, combat aircraft earmarked for rapid deployment are cut from 70 to 45. Overall platform numbers are also due to reduce; heavy armour from around 250 to 200, air force and navy combat aircraft from 300 to 225, and naval frigates from 18 to 15. Funding plans for 2014–19 reduced to 26 (from 66) the number of Rafale aircraft to be purchased over the period. Strategic airlift will be strengthened with the delivery of the A400M; the first aircraft was accepted by the air force in August 2013. There are also plans to acquire 12 A330-based tankers to replace the KC-135. These platforms will support France’s ability to project power on a global scale. Substantial overseas deployments in Africa and Lebanon are maintained, and all of its services exercise regularly and jointly at the national level, while also participating in a broad range of international exercises. (See pp. 65–8.)

ACTIVE 222,200 (Army 119,050 Navy 37,850 Air 47,550, Other Staffs 17,750) Paramilitary 103,400

RESERVE 29,650 (Army 16,000, Navy 5,500, Air 4,750, Other Staffs 3,400) Paramilitary 40,000

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Strategic Nuclear Forces

   Navy 2,200

SUBMARINESSTRATEGICSSBN 4

2 Le Triomphant with 16 M45 SLBM with 6 TN-75 nuclear warheads, 4 single 533mm TT with F17 Mod 2 HWT/SM-39 Exocet AShM

2 Le Triomphant with 16 M51 SLBM with 6 TN-75 nuclear warheads, 4 single 533mm TT with F17 Mod 2 HWT/SM-39 Exocet AShM

AIRCRAFTFGA 20 Rafale M F3 with ASMP-A msl

   Air Force 1,800
      Air Strategic Forces Command
      FORCES BY ROLE

STRIKE

1 sqn with Mirage 2000N with ASMP/ASMP-A msl

1 sqn with Rafale B F3 with ASMP/ASMP-A msl

TANKER

1 sqn with C-135FR; KC-135 Stratotanker

      EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 45 combat capable

FGA 45: 25 Mirage 2000N; 20 Rafale B F3

TKR/TPT 11 C-135FR

TKR 3 KC-135 Stratotanker

   Paramilitary
      Gendarmerie 40
 

Space

SATELLITES 8

COMMUNICATIONS 2 Syracuse-3 (designed to integrate with UK Skynet & ITA Sicral)

ISR 4: 2 Helios (2A/2B); 2 Pleiades

EARLY WARNING 2 Spirale

Army 119,050 (incl 7,300 Foreign Legion; 12,800 Marines)

Regt and BG normally bn size

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

2 (task force) HQ

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISR bde (1 recce regt, 1 UAV regt, 2 EW regt, 1 int bn)

Armoured

1 armd bde (2 armd regt, 2 armd inf regt, 1 MLRS regt, 1 AD regt, 1 engr regt)

1 armd bde (2 armd regt, 2 armd inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 engr regt)

Mechanised

1 lt armd bde (1 armd cav regt, 2 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 engr regt)

1 (FRA/GER) mech bde (1 armd cav regt, 1 mech inf regt)

2 mech inf bde (1 armd cav regt, 1 armd inf regt, 1 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 engr regt)

1 mech BG (UAE)

1 mech regt (Djibouti)

Light

2 regt (French Guiana)

1 regt (New Caledonia)

1 coy (Mayotte)

Air Manoeuvre

1 AB bde (1 armd cav regt, 4 para regt, 1 arty regt, 1 engr regt, 1 spt regt)

1 AB regt (Réunion)

1 AB bn (Gabon)

Amphibious

1 lt armd bde (1 armd cav regt, 2 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 engr regt)

Mountain

1 mtn bde (1 armd cav regt, 3 mech inf regt, 1 arty regt, 1 engr regt)

Aviation

3 avn regt

Other

4 SMA regt (French Guiana, French West Indies & Indian Ocean)

3 SMA coy (French Polynesia, Indian Ocean & New Caledonia)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 CBRN regt

1 sigs bde (5 sigs regt)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde (5 tpt regt, 1 log regt, 1 med regt)

3 trg regt

   Special Operation Forces 2,200
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

2 SF regt

MANOEUVRE

Aviation

1 avn regt

   Reserves 16,000 reservists

Reservists form 79 UIR (Reserve Intervention Units) of about 75 to 152 troops, for ‘Proterre’ – combined land projection forces bn, and 23 USR (Reserve Specialised Units) of about 160 troops, in specialised regt.

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 254 Leclerc

RECCE 2,000: 256 AMX-10RC; 110 ERC-90F4 Sagaie; 40 VAB Reco NBC; 1,594 VBL M-ll

AIFV 530 VBCI

APC 3,158

APC (T) 53 BvS-10

APC (W) 3,086: 3,000 VAB; 60 VAB BOA; 26 VAB NBC

PPV 19: 14 Aravis; 5 Buffalo

ARTY 375

SP 155mm 114: 37 AU-F-1; 77 CAESAR

TOWED 155mm 43 TR-F-1

MRL 227mm 26 MLRS

MOR 120mm 192 RT-F1

ATMSL

SP 325: 30 VAB HOT; 110 VAB Milan; 185 VAB Eryx

MANPATS Javelin; Milan

AIRCRAFTTPTLight 16: 5 PC-6B Turbo Porter; 8 TBM-700; 3 TBM-700B

HELICOPTERS

ATK 40: 39 EC665 Tiger HAP; 1 EC665 Tiger HAD

MRH 140 SA341F/342M Gazelle (all variants)

TPT 166: Heavy 8 EC725AP Caracal (CSAR); Medium 122: 23 AS532UL Cougar; 9 NH90 TTH; 90 SA330 Puma; Light 36 EC120B Colibri

UAVISRMedium 20 SDTI (Sperwer)

ADSAM

TOWED 15 MIM-23B I-HAWK

MANPAD Mistral

RADARLAND 66: 10 Cobra; 56 RASIT/RATAC

AEV 71 AMX-30 EBG

ARV 154+: AMX-1-ECH; 134 AMX-30D; 20 Leclerc DNG; VAB-EHC

VLB 67: 39 EFA; 18 PTA; 10 SPRAT (being delivered)

MW 20+: AMX-30 B/B2; 20 Minotaur

Navy 37,850 (incl 2,200 opcon Strategic Nuclear Forces)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINES 10

STRATEGICSSBN 4:

2 Le Triomphant opcon Strategic Nuclear Forces with 16 M45 SLBM with 6 TN-75 nuclear warheads, 4 single 533mm TT with F17 Mod 2 HWT/SM-39 Exocet AShM (currently undergoing modernisation programme to install M51 SLBM; expected completion 2018)

2 Le Triomphant opcon Strategic Nuclear Forces with 16 M51 SLBM with 6 TN-75 nuclear warheads, 4 single 533mm TT with F17 Mod 2 HWT/SM-39 Exocet AShM

TACTICALSSN 6:

6 Rubis with 4 single 533mm TT with F-17 HWT/SM-39 Exocet AShM

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 24

AIRCRAFT CARRIERS 1

CVN 1 Charles de Gaulle with 4 octuple VLS with Aster 15 SAM, 2 sextuple Sadral lnchr with Mistral SAM (capacity 35–40 Super Etendard/Rafale M/E-2C Hawkeye/AS365 Dauphin)

DESTROYERSDDGHM 12:

2 Cassard with 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet Block 2 AShM, 1 Mk13 GMLS with SM-1MR SAM, 2 sextuple Sadral lnchr with Mistral SAM, 2 single 533mm ASTT with L5 HWT, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 1 AS565SA Panther ASW hel)

2 Forbin with 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet Block 3 AShM, 1 48-cell VLS with Aster 15/Aster 30 SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with MU-90, 2 76mm gun, (capacity 1 NH90 TTH hel)

1 Georges Leygues (trg role) with 2 twin lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 octuple lnchr with Crotale SAM, 2 twin Simbad lnchr with Mistral SAM, 2 single 533mm ASTT with L5 HWT, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 2 Lynx hel)

1 Georges Leygues with 2 twin lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 octuple lnchr with Crotale SAM, 2 sextuple Sadral lnchr with Mistral SAM, 2 single 533mm ASTT with L5 HWT, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 2 Lynx hel)

2 Georges Leygues with 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet AShM, 1 octuple lnchr with Crotale SAM, , 2 sextuple Sadral lnchr with Mistral SAM, 2 single 533mm ASTT with L5 HWT, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 2 Lynx hel)

3 Georges Leygues (mod) with 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet AShM, 1 octuple lnchr with Crotale SAM, 2 twin Simbad lnchr with Mistral SAM, 2 single 324mm ASTT with MU90 LWT, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 2 Lynx hel)

1 Aquitaine with 2 octuple Sylver A70 VLS with MdCN (SCALP Naval) LACM, 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet Block 3 AShM, 2 octuple Sylver A43 VLS with Aster 15 SAM, 2 twin B515 324mm ASTT with MU90 LWT, 1 76mm gun (capacity 1 NH90 NFH hel)

FRIGATESFFGHM 11:

6 Floreal with 2 single lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 twin Simbad lnchr with Mistral SAM, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 1 AS565SA Panther hel)

5 La Fayette with 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet Block 2 AShM, 1 octuple lnchr with Crotale SAM, (space for fitting 2 octuple VLS lnchr for Aster 15/30), 1 100mm gun, (capacity 1 AS565SA Panther/SA321 Super Frelon hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 21

FSM 9 D’Estienne d’Orves with 1 twin Simbad lnchr with Mistral SAM, 4 single ASTT, 1 100mm gun

PCC 7: 4 L’Audacieuse (all deployed in the Pacific or Caribbean); 3 Flamant

PCO 4: 1 Lapérouse; 1 Le Malin; 1 Fulmar; 1 Gowind (owned by private company DCNS; currently operated by French Navy)

PSO 1 Albatros

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 18

MCS 7: 3 Antares (used as route survey vessels); 4 Vulcain (used as mine diving tenders)

MHO 11 Éridan

AMPHIBIOUS

PRINCIPAL AMPHIBIOUS SHIPS 4

LHD 3 Mistral (capacity mixed air group of up to 16 NH90/SA330 Puma/AS532 Cougar/EC665 Tiger hel; 2 LCAC or 4 LCM; 60 AFVs; 450 troops)

LPD 1 Foudre with 2 twin Simbad lnchr with Mistral SAM, (capacity 4 AS532 Cougar; either 2 LCT or 10 LCM; 22 tanks; 470 troops)

LANDING SHIPSLST 3 Batral (capacity 12 trucks; 140 troops)

LANDING CRAFT 42

LCT 6: 1 EDIC 700; 1 CDIC; 4 EDA-R

LCM 11 CTMS

LCVP 25

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 145

ABU 1 Telenn Mor

AE 1 Denti

AFS 1 Revi

AG 4: 1 Lapérouse (used as trials ships for mines and divers); 3 Chamois

AGE 1 Corraline

AGI 1 Dupuy de Lome

AGM 1 Monge

AGOR 2: 1 Pourquoi pas? (used 150 days per year by Ministry of Defence; operated by Ministry of Research and Education otherwise); 1 Beautemps-beaupré

AGS 3 Lapérouse

AORH 4 Durance with 1-3 twin Simbad lnchr with Mistral SAM (capacity 1 SA319 Alouette III/AS365 Dauphin/Lynx)

ATA 2 Malabar

AXL 12: 8 Léopard; 2 Glycine; 2 Engageante

AXS 4: 2 La Belle Poule; 2 other

YAG 2 Phaéton (towed array tenders)

YD 5

YDT 10: 1 Alize; 9 VIP 21

YFB 2 VTP

YFL 9 V14

YFRT 2 Athos

YFU 8

YGS 7 VH8

YTB 3 Bélier

YTL 34: 4 RP10; 4 PSS10; 26 PS4

YTM 21: 3 Maïto; 16 Fréhel; 2 Esterel

YTR 5: 3 Avel Aber; 2 Las

   Naval Aviation 6,500

Flying hours 180–220 hrs/yr on strike/FGA ac

   FORCES BY ROLE

STRIKE/FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

2 sqn with Rafale M F3

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with Super Etendard Modernisé

ANTI-SURFACE WARFARE

1 sqn with AS565SA Panther

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE

2 sqn (forming) with NH90 NFH

1 sqn with Lynx Mk4

MARITIME PATROL

2 sqn with Atlantique 2

1 sqn with Falcon 20H Gardian

1 sqn with Falcon 50MI

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL

1 sqn with E-2C Hawkeye

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with AS365N/F Dauphin 2

1 sqn with EC225

TRAINING

1 sqn with SA319B Alouette III

1 unit with Falcon 10 M

1 unit with CAP 10; EMB 121 Xingu; MS-880 Rallye

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 77 combat capable

FGA 58: 33 Rafale M F3; 25 Super Etendard Modernisé

ASW 12 Atlantique 2 (10 more in store)

AEW&C 3 E-2C Hawkeye

SAR 1 Falcon 50MS

TPT 26: Light 11 EMB-121 Xingu; PAX 15: 6 Falcon 10MER; 5 Falcon 20H Gardian; 4 Falcon 50MI

TRG 14: 7 CAP 10; 7 MS-880 Rallye*

HELICOPTERS

ASW 33: 22 Lynx Mk4; 11 NH90 NFH

MRH 52: 9 AS365N/F/SP Dauphin 2; 2 AS365N3; 16 AS565SA Panther; 25 SA319B Alouette III

TPT Medium 2 EC225 Super Puma

MSL

AAMIR R-550 Magic 2; IIR Mica IR; ARH Mica RF

AShM AM-39 Exocet

ASM ASMP-A; AS-30 Laser; AASM

   Marines 2,500
      Commando Units
      FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 recce gp

Amphibious

3 aslt gp

1 atk swimmer gp

1 raiding gp

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 spt gp

      Fusiliers-Marin 1,600
      FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

9 (force protection) sy unit

14 (Naval Base) sy gp

   Public Service Force

Naval personnel performing general coast guard, fishery protection, SAR, anti-pollution and traffic surveillance duties. Command exercised through Maritime Prefectures (Premar): Manche (Cherbourg), Atlantique (Brest), Méditerranée (Toulon)

   FORCES BY ROLE

MARITIME PATROL

1 sqn with Falcon 50M; Falcon 200 Gardian

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 6

PSO 1 Albatros

PCO 1 Arago

PCC 4: 3 Flamant; 1 Grèbe

AIRCRAFTMP 9: 4 Falcon 50M; 5 Falcon 200 Gardian

HELICOPTERSMRH 4 AS365 Dauphin 2

   Reserves 5,500 reservists
 

Air Force 47,550

Flying hours 180 hrs/year

   Strategic Forces
   FORCES BY ROLE

STRIKE

1 sqn with Mirage 2000N with ASMP/ASMP-A msl

1 sqn with Rafale B F3 with ASMP/ASMP-A msl

TANKER

1 sqn with C-135FR; KC-135 Stratotanker

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 43 combat capable

FGA 43: 23 Mirage 2000N; 20 Rafale B F3

TKR/TPT 11 C-135FR

TKR 3 KC-135 Stratotanker

   Combat Brigade
   FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

1 sqn with Mirage 2000-5

1 sqn with Mirage 2000B/C

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

3 sqn with Mirage 2000D

1 (composite) sqn with Mirage 2000C/D (Djibouti)

2 sqn with Rafale B/C F3

1 sqn with Rafale B/C F3 (UAE)

ISR

1 sqn with Mirage F-1CR *

ELECTRONIC WARFARE

1 flt with C-160G Gabriel (ESM)

TRAINING

1 OCU sqn with Mirage 2000D

1 OCU sqn with Rafale

1 (agressor) sqn with Alpha Jet*

4 sqn with Alpha Jet*

ISR UAV

1 sqn with Harfang

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 282 combat capable

FTR 67: 21 Mirage 2000-5; 7 Mirage 2000B; 39 Mirage 2000C

FGA 126: 61 Mirage 2000D; 3 Mirage F-1B; 2 Mirage F-1CT; 17 Rafale B F3; 43 Rafale C F3

ISR 17 Mirage F-1CR*

ELINT 2 C-160G Gabriel (ESM)

TRG 72 Alpha Jet*

UAV ISR Heavy 4 Harfang

MSL

AAMIR R-550 Magic 2; IIR Mica IR; SARH Super 530D; ARH Mica RF

ASM ASMP-A; AS-30L; Apache; AASM

LACM SCALP EG

BOMBS

Laser-guided: GBU-12 Paveway II

   Air Mobility Brigade
   FORCES BY ROLE

SEARCH & RESCUE/TRANSPORT

5 sqn with C-160 Transall; CN-235M; DHC-6-300 Twin Otter; SA330 Puma; AS555 Fennec (Djibouti, French Guiana, Gabon, Indian Ocean & New Caledonia)

TANKER/TRANSPORT

2 sqn with C-160R Transall

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with A310-300; A330; A340-200 (on lease)

3 sqn with A400M Atlas; C-130H/H-30 Hercules; C-160 Transall

2 sqn with CN-235M

1 sqn with EMB-121

1 sqn with Falcon 7X (VIP); Falcon 900 (VIP); Falcon 2000

3 flt with TBM-700A

1 (mixed) gp with AS532 Cougar; C-160 Transall; DHC-6-300 Twin Otter

TRAINING

1 OCU sqn with SA330 Puma; AS555 Fennec

1 OCU unit with C-160 Transall

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with AS555 Fennec

2 sqn with AS332C/L Super Puma; SA330 Puma; EC725 Caracal

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TKR/TPT 20 C-160R Transall

TPT 121: Heavy 2 A400M Atlas; Medium 35: 5 C-130H Hercules; 9 C-130H-30 Hercules; 21 C-160 Transall; Light 72: 19 CN-235M-100; 8 CN-235M-300; 5 DHC-6-300 Twin Otter; 25 EMB-121 Xingu; 15 TBM-700; PAX 12: 3 A310-300; 1 A330; 2 A340-200 (on lease); 2 Falcon 7X; 2 Falcon 900 (VIP); 2 Falcon 2000

HELICOPTERS

MRH 37 AS555 Fennec

TPT 43: Heavy 11 EC725 Caracal; Medium 32: 3 AS332C Super Puma; 4 AS332L Super Puma; 3 AS532UL Cougar (tpt/VIP); 22 SA330B Puma

   Air Space Control Brigade
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPACE

1 (satellite obs) sqn with Helios

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL

1 (Surveillance & Control) sqn with E-3F Sentry

AIR DEFENCE

3 sqn with Crotale NG; SAMP/T

2 sqn with SAMP/T

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SATELLITES see Space

AIRCRAFTAEW&C 4 E-3F Sentry

AD

SAM Crotale NG; SAMP/T

GUNS 20mm 76T2

SYSTEMS STRIDA (Control)

   Security and Intervention Brigade
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

3 SF gp

MANOEUVRE

Other

24 protection units

30 fire fighting and rescue scn

   Air Training Command
   FORCES BY ROLE

TRAINING

3 sqn with CAP 10; Grob G120A-F; TB-30 Epsilon

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TRG 48: 5 CAP 10; 18 Grob G120A-F; 25 TB-30 Epsilon (incl many in storage)

   Reserves 4,750 reservists
 

Paramilitary 103,400

   Gendarmerie 103,400; 40,000 reservists
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

LT TK 28 VBC-90

APC (W) 153 VBRG-170

ARTYMOR 157+ 60mm; 81mm


PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 39

PB 39: 4 Géranium; 1 Glaive; 2 VSC 14; 24 VSCM; 8 EBSLP

HELICOPTERS TPT Light 35: 20 EC135; 15 EC145

   Customs (Direction Générale des Douanes et Droits Indirects)
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 30

PCO 2: 1 Jacques Oudart Fourmentin; 1 Kermovan

PB 28: 7 Plascoa 2100; 7 Haize Hegoa; 2 Avel Gwalarn; 1 Rafale; 1 Arafenua; 1 Vent d’Amont; 1 La Rance; 8 others

   Coast Guard (Direction des Affaires Maritimes)
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 25

PCO 1 Themis

PCC 1 Iris

PB 23: 4 Callisto; 19 others

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT AG 7

Cyber

The French Network and Information Security Agency (ANSSI) was established in 2009 to conduct surveillance on sensitive government networks and respond to cyber attacks. The 2008 French Defence White Paper placed emphasis on cyber threats, calling for programmes in offensive and defensive cyber-war capabilities. In July 2011, the MoD produced a classified Joint Cyber Defence Concept. Ahead of the new Livre Blanc, the general secretariat on defence and national security (SGDSN) released a preparatory document stressing the strategic dimension of cyber threats and confirming the development of technical capabilities to control access to cyberspace. The 2013 White Paper marked ‘a crucial new stage in recognition of cyber threats and development of cyber defence capabilities’. Cyber featured throughout the document and, ‘for the first time, the armed forces model includes military cyber defence capabilities, in close liaison with intelligence and defensive and offensive planning, in preparation for or support of military operations’.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1958)

Specific legislation: ‘Order of 7 January 1959’

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: De jure: by the minister of defence, under authority of the PM and on agreement in council of ministers (‘Order of 7 January 1959’, Art. 16, Art. 20-1 of constitution)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF/OEF-A 266

Arabian sea & Gulf of Aden

Combined Maritime Forces • CTF-150: 1 FFGHM

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea (Operation Astrée) 2

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 3

Central African Republic

Operation Boali 400; 2 inf coy; 1 spt det

Chad

Operation Epervier 950; 1 mech inf BG; 1 air unit with 6 Rafale F3; 1 C-130H Hercules; 1 C-160 Transall; 1 C-135FR; 1 hel det with 4 SA330 Puma

Côte D’Ivoire

Operation Licorne 450; 1 armd cav BG; 1 C-160 Transall; 1 AS555 Fennec

UN • UNOCI 6

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 7

UN • MONUSCO 4 obs

Djibouti

1,900; 1 (Marine) combined arms regt with (2 recce sqn, 2 inf coy, 1 arty bty, 1 engr coy); 1 hel det with 4 SA330 Puma; 2 SA342 Gazelle; 1 LCT; 1 LCM; 1 FGA sqn with 7 Mirage 2000C/D; 1 SAR/tpt sqn with 1 C-160 Transall; 2 SA330 Puma; 1 AS555 Fennec

Egypt

MFO 2

French Guiana

2,200: 1 (Foreign Legion) inf regt; 1 (Marine) inf regt; 1 SMA regt; 1 PCC; 1 tpt sqn with 1 CN-235M; 6 SA330 Puma; 3 AS555 Fennec; 3 gendarmerie coy; 1 AS350 Ecureuil

French Polynesia

1,000: (incl Centre d’Expérimentation du Pacifique); 1 SMA coy; 1 naval HQ at Papeete; 1 FFGHM; 1 LST; 1 AFS; 3 Falcon 200 Gardian; 1 SAR/tpt sqn with 3 CN-235M; 1 AS332 Super Puma; 1 AS555 Fennec

French West Indies

1,250; 1 (Marine) inf coy; 2 SMA regt; 1 FFGHM; 1 PCC; 1 naval base at Fort de France (Martinique); 4 gendarmerie coy; 2 AS350 Ecureuil

Gabon

900; 1 recce pl with ERC-90F4 Sagaie; 1 mtn inf bn; 1 SAR/tpt sqn with 4 SA330 Puma

Germany

2,000 (incl elm Eurocorps and FRA/GER bde); 1 (FRA/GER) mech bde (1 armd cav regt, 1 mech inf regt)

Gulf of Guinea

Operation Corymbe 1 FSM

Haiti

UN • MINUSTAH 2

Indian Ocean

1,900 (incl La Réunion and TAAF); 1 (Marine) para regt; 1 (Foreign Legion) inf coy; 1 SMA regt ; 1 SMA coy; 2 FFGHM; 1 PSO; 1 PCO; 1 LST; 1 LCM; 1 naval HQ at Port-des-Galets (La Réunion); 1 naval base at Dzaoudzi (Mayotte); 1 SAR/tpt sqn with 2 C-160 Transall; 2 AS555 Fennec; 5 gendarmerie coy; 1 SA319 Alouette III

Jordan

Operation Tamour 80: 1 med det

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 863; 1 armd cav BG; Leclerc; AMX-10P; VBCI; PVP; VAB; CAESAR; AU-F1 155mm; Mistral

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 1

Mali

Operation Serval 2,800; 1 mech inf BG; 1 log bn; 1 hel unit with 3 EC665 Tiger; 8 SA330 Puma; 6 SA342 Gazelle; 1 FGA det with 3 Mirage 2000D

EU • EUTM Mali 207

UN • MINUSMA 19

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 3 obs

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

New Caledonia

1,500; 1 (Marine) mech inf regt; 1 SMA coy; 6 ERC-90F1 Lynx; 1 FFGHM; 2 PCC; 1 LST; 1 base with 2 Falcon 200 Gardian at Nouméa; 1 tpt unit with 3 CN-235 MPA; 4 SA330 Puma; 1 AS555 Fennec; 4 gendarmerie coy; 2 AS350 Ecureuil

Senegal

350; 1 Atlantique; 1 C-160 Transall

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 316; 1 armd cav sqn; 1 log coy

OSCE • Kosovo 6

OSCE • Serbia 1

UAE

700: 1 (Foreign Legion) BG (2 recce coy, 2 inf coy, 1 arty bty, 1 engr coy); 1 FGA sqn with 6 Rafale F3, 1 KC-135F

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 23

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 13 obs

FOREIGN FORCES

Belgium 29 Alpha Jet trg ac located at Cazaux/Tours

Germany 400 (GER elm Eurocorps)

Singapore 200; 1 trg sqn with 4 A-4SU Super Skyhawk; 10 TA-4SU Super Skyhawk; 5 M-346 Master

Germany

Germany GER
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 2.71tr 2.78tr
US$ 3.4tr 3.6tr
per capita US$ 41,513 44,010
Growth % -0.27 2.02
Inflation % 2.14 1.61
Def bdgt a 31.9bn 33.3bn
US$ 41bn 44.2bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions
Population 81,147,265
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 6.7% 2.5% 2.9% 3.1% 24.8% 9.1%
Female 6.4% 2.4% 2.8% 3.0% 24.4% 11.8%

Capabilities

The armed forces are undergoing a period of restructuring and substantial downsizing, as the 2010 defence cuts and 2011 reform agenda are implemented. With the suspension of conscription, military personnel numbers will fall and up to 20,000 civilian posts are also being cut. The army has begun its restructuring process, with one divisional headquarters disbanding in 2013 and another scheduled to follow in 2014, whilst the existing airborne forces will be consolidated into a single brigade. The air force has replaced its previous divisional structure with one based around operational and support commands and the navy is similarly being organised into capability areas. There will be base closures in Germany and reductions in equipment holdings, including battlefield helicopters. While the armed forces remain constrained politically in terms of out-of-area operations, they will increasingly have the ability for power projection, supported by the eventual introduction into service of the A400M military airlifter.

ACTIVE 186,450 (Army 62,500 Navy 16,000 Air 31,350 Joint Support Service 44,900 Joint Medical Service 19,650 Other 12,050)

Conscript liability Voluntary conscription only. Voluntary conscripts can serve up to 23 months.

RESERVE 40,320 (Army 15,350 Navy 1,850 Air 4,900 Joint Support Service 12,850 Joint Medical Service 4,950 MoD 420)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Space

SATELLITES 7

COMMUNICATIONS 2 COMSATBw (1 & 2)

ISR 5 SAR-Lupe

Army 62,500

The German army is divided into response forces (RF) and stabilisation forces (StF).

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 (1st) armd div (RF) (1 armd bde (1 armd recce coy, 2 armd bn, 1 armd inf bn, 1 SP arty bn, 1 engr coy, 1 log bn); 1 armd bde (1 recce coy, 1 armd bn, 1 armd inf bn, 1 SP arty bn, 1 engr coy, 1 log bn); 1 mech bde (1 recce bn, 1 armd bn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn, 1 log bn) 1 armd recce bn; 1 arty regt; 1 engr regt; 1 sigs bn; 1 NBC bn; 1 log bn)

1 (10th) armd div (StF) (1 armd bde (1 recce bn, 1 armd bn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn, 1 log bn); 1 mtn inf bde (1 recce bn, 3 mtn inf bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn, 1 log bn))

Light

2 bn (GER/FRA bde)

Air Manoeuvre

1 spec ops div (RF) (1 SF bde, 2 AB bde (1 recce coy, 2 para bn, 1 engr coy, 1 log bn), 1 AD coy, 1 sigs bn)

1 air mob div (RF) (1 air mob bde (1 air mob inf regt, 2 atk hel bn, 1 tpt hel bn); 1 mech bde (1 recce bn, 1 armd bn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn, 1 log bn); 1 cbt spt bde with (1 arty regt, 1 NBC regt); 2 tpt hel regt, 1 lt tpt hel regt, 1 sigs bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bn (GER/FRA bde)

1 engr coy (GER/FRA bde)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bn (GER/FRA bde)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 322 Leopard 2A6

RECCE 340: 221 Fennek (incl 24 engr recce, 19 fires spt); 94 Tpz-1 Fuchs (CBRN); 25 Wiesel (16 recce; 9 engr)

AIFV 498: 390 Marder 1A2/A3; 5 Puma (test); 103 Wiesel (with 20mm gun)

APC 1,799+

APC (T) 473: 177 Bv-206D/S; 296 M113 (inc variants)

APC (W) 1,056: 200+ Boxer (inc variants); 856 TPz-1 Fuchs (inc variants)

PPV 270 APV-2 Dingo II

ARTY 272

SP 155mm 130 PzH 2000

MRL 227mm 55 MLRS

MOR 120mm 87 Tampella

AT • MSL

SP 120 Wiesel (TOW)

MANPATS Milan

AMPHIBIOUS 30 LCM (river engr)

HELICOPTERS

ATK 22 EC665 Tiger

MRH/ISR 97 Bo-105M/Bo-105P PAH-1 (with HOT)

TPT: 144 Medium 16 NH90; Light 128: 76 Bell 205 (UH-1D Iroquois); 38 Bo-105; 14 EC135

UAVISR 15 Medium 6 KZO; Light 9 LUNA

RADARS 101: 8 Cobra; 76 RASIT (veh, arty); 17 RATAC (veh, arty)

AEV 185: 149 Dachs; 36 Leopard A1

ARV 77: 75 Büffel; 2 M88A1

VLB 169: 104 Biber; 30 M3; 35 Panzerschnellbrücke 2

MW 124+: 100 Area Clearing System; 24 Keiler; Minelayer 5821; Skorpion Minelauncher

Navy 16,000

Previous Type Comds have been merged into two Flotillas. Flotilla I combines SS, MCM, PBF and SF whilst Flotilla II comprises 2 FF and Aux squadrons.

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 4:

4 Type-212A with 6 single 533mm TT with 12 A4 Seehecht DM2 HWT (2 further vessels on order)

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 18

DESTROYERS DDGHM 7:

4 Brandenburg with 2 twin lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 16-cell Mk41 VLS with RIM-7M/P, 2 Mk49 GMLS with RIM-116 RAM SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 Sea Lynx Mk88A ASW hel)

3 Sachsen with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84F Harpoon AShM, 1 32-cell Mk41 VLS with SM-2MR/RIM-162B Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 21-cell Mk49 GMLS with RIM-116 RAM SAM, 2 triple Mk32 324mm ASTT with MU90 LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity; 2 Sea Lynx Mk88A ASW hel)

FRIGATES 11

FFGHM 6 Bremen (of which 1 laid up for decommissioning in Nov 2013) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 GMLS with RIM-7M/P Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 Mk49 GMLS with RIM-116 RAM SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 Sea Lynx Mk88A ASW)

FFGM 5 Braunschweig (K130) with 2 twin lnchr with RBS-15 AShM, 2 Mk49 GMLS each with RIM-116 RAM SAM, 1 76mm gun, 1 hel landing platform

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPCGM 8

8 Gepard with 2 twin lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 Mk49 GMLS with RIM-116 RAM SAM, 1 76mm gun

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 35

MHO 12: 10 Frankenthal (2 used as diving support); 2 Kulmbach

MSO 5 Ensdorf

MSD 18 Seehund

AMPHIBIOUS 2

LCU 2 Type-520

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 52

AFH 3 Berlin Type-702 (capacity 2 Sea King Mk41 hel; 2 RAMs)

AG 5: 2 Schwedeneck Type-748; 3 Stollergrund Type-745

AGI 3 Oste Type-423

AGOR 1 Planet Type-751

AO 2 Walchensee Type-703

AOR 6 Elbe Type-404 (2 specified for PFM support; 1 specified for SSK support; 3 specified for MHC/MSC support)

AOT 2 Spessart Type-704

APB 3: 1 Knurrhahn; 2 Ohre

ATR 1 Helgoland

AXS 1 Gorch Fock

YAG 2 (used as trials ships)

YDT 4 Wangerooge

YFD 5

YFRT 4 Todendorf Type-905

YPC 2 Bottsand

YTM 8 Vogelsand

   Naval Aviation 2,200
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 8 combat capable

ASW 8 AP-3C Orion

TPTLight 2 Do-228 (pollution control)

HELICOPTERS

ASW 22 Lynx Mk88A with Sea Skua

SAR 21 Sea King Mk41

MSL AShM Sea Skua

Air Force 31,350

Flying hours 140 hrs/year (plus 40 hrs high-fidelity simulator)

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

2 wg (2 sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon)

1 wg (2 sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon) (forming)

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 wg (2 sqn with Tornado IDS)

1 wg (2 sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon)

ISR

1 wg (1 ISR sqn with Tornado ECR/IDS; 1 UAV sqn (ISAF only) with Heron)

TANKER/TRANSPORT

1 (special air mission) wg (3 sqn with A310 MRT; A310 MRTT; A340; AS532U2 Cougar II; Global 5000)

TRANSPORT

4 wg (total: 2 sqn with CH-53G Stallion; 4 sqn with C-160D Transall; 1 sqn forming with NH90)

TRAINING

1 sqn located at Holloman AFB (US) with Tornado IDS

1 unit (ENJJPT) located at Sheppard AFB (US) with T-6 Texan II; T-38A

1 hel unit located at Fassberg

AIR DEFENCE

1 wg (3 SAM gp) with Patriot

1 AD gp with ASRAD Ozelot; C-RAM MANTIS

1 AD trg unit located at Fort Bliss (US) with ASRAD Ozelot; C-RAM MANTIS; Patriot

3 (tac air ctrl) radar gp

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 205 combat capable

FTR 101 Eurofighter Typhoon

FGA 83 Tornado IDS

EW/FGA 21 Tornado ECR*

TKR/TPT 4 A310 MRTT

TPT 70: Medium 60 C-160D Transall; PAX 10: 2 A310 MRT; 2 A340 (VIP); 2 A319; 4 Global 5000

TRG 109: 69 T-6 Texan TII, 40 T-38A

HELICOPTERSTPT 90: Heavy 82 CH-53G Stallion; Medium 8: 4 AS532U2 Cougar II (VIP); 4 NH90

UAVISRHeavy 1 Heron

ADSAM

SP 30 ASRAD Ozelot (with FIM-92A Stinger)

TOWED 16: 14 Patriot PAC-3, 2 C-RAM MANTIS

MSL

AAM IR AIM-9L/Li Sidewinder; IIR IRIS-T; ARH AIM 120A/B AMRAAM

LACM KEPD 350 Taurus

ARM AGM-88B HARM

BOMBS LGB: GBU-24 Paveway III, GBU-54 JDAM

Joint Support Services 44,900

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SUPPORT

6 MP bn

3 sigs regt

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde

2 log regt

Joint Medical Services 19,650

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

9 med regt (1 rapid)

5 fd hospital

Paramilitary

   Border Guard 500
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 15

PCO 6: 3 Bad Bramstedt; 1 Bredstedt; 2 Sassnitz

PB 9: 3 Vogtland; 5 Prignitz; 1 Rettin

Cyber

Germany established a Department of Information and Computer Network Operations in 2009 under the guidance of the then-chief of the Bundeswehr’s Strategic Reconnaissance Command. Bundeswehr units maintain organic IT monitoring capability: a Bundeswehr CERT team (CERTBw) is available. Germany issued a Cyber Security Strategy in February 2011. A National Cyber Response Centre, involving police, customs, the Federal Intelligence Service and the Bundeswehr, began operations on 1 April 2011. It reports to the Federal Office for Information Security. A National Cyber Security Council has also been established, with high-level representatives from government and, as associate members, businesses.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (‘Basic Law’, 1949)

Specific legislation: ‘Parlamentsbeteiligungsgesetz’ (2005)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) By parliament: in general and in the case of military intervention; b) by government: in urgent cases of threat or emergency (parliamentary consent a posteriori), or for preparatory measures or humanitarian interventions; c) simplified procedure for ‘missions of low intensity’ or if the government seeks an extension of parliamentary approval (§§ 1–5 of the 2005 law).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 4,400; 1 div HQ; 2 inf BG; 6 Tornado ECR (SEAD); CH-53 tpt hel; C-160 tpt ac; Heron UAV

UN • UNAMA 1 obs

Bosnia-Herzegovina

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 3

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 3

France

400 (incl GER elm Eurocorps)

Gulf of Aden & Indian Ocean

EU Operation Atalanta 1 FFGHM; 1 P-3C

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 149; 2 PC

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 73

UN • MINUSMA 61; 1 avn unit

Mediterranean Sea

NATO • SNMG 2: 1 DDGHM

NATO • SNMCMG 2: 1 MHO; 1 AOR

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

North Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 1: 1 MHO

Poland

67 (GER elm Corps HQ (multinational))

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 741

OSCE • Kosovo 2

OSCE • Serbia 1

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 7; 8 obs

Sudan

UN • UNAMID 10

Turkey

NATO Active Fence: 2 AD bty with Patriot PAC-3

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 21

United States

Trg units at Goodyear AFB (AZ)/Sheppard AFB (TX) with 40 T-38 Talon; 69 T-6A Texan II; 1 trg sqn Holloman AFB (NM) with 14 Tornado IDS; NAS Pensacola (FL); Fort Rucker (AL) • Missile trg located at Fort Bliss (TX)

Uzbekistan

NATO • ISAF 100

FOREIGN FORCES

Canada NATO 226

France 2,000; 1 (FRA/GER) mech bde (1 armd cav rgt, 1 mech inf regt)

United Kingdom 16,500; 1 armd div (2 armd bde)

United States

US Africa Command: Army; 1 HQ at Stuttgart

US European Command: 50,500; 1 combined service HQ (EUCOM) at Stuttgart-Vaihingen

Army 35,200; 1 HQ (US Army Europe (USAREUR) at Heidelberg; 1 cav SBCT; 1 armd inf bde; 1 cbt avn bde; 1 engr bde; 1 int bde; 1 MP bde; 2 sigs bde; 1 spt bde; 1 (APS) armd HBCT eqpt. set (transforming); M1 Abrams; M2/M3 Bradley; Stryker; M109; M777; M270 MLRS; AH-64 Apache; CH-47 Chinook; UH-60 Black Hawk

Navy 485

USAF 14,450; 1 HQ (US Airforce Europe (USAFE)) at Ramstein AB; 1 HQ (3rd Air Force) at Ramstein AB; 1 ftr wg at Spangdahlem AB with (1 atk sqn with 18 A-10C Thunderbolt II; 1 ftr sqn with 24 F-16CJ Fighting Falcon); 1 airlift wg at Ramstein AB with 16 C-130E/J Hercules; 2 C-20 Gulfstream; 9 C-21 Learjet; 1 C-40B

USMC 365

Greece

Greece GRC
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 183bn 184bn
US$ 249bn 244bn
per capita US$ 22,055 21,645
Growth % 0.87 0.61
Inflation % 1.04 -0.80
Def exp 3.83bn
US$ 4.93bn
Def bdgt a 5.19bn 4.27bn 3.83bn
US$ 6.68bn 5.68bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions and peacekeeping operations allocations
Population 10,772,967
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.3% 2.5% 2.6% 3.0% 24.8% 8.8%
Female 6.8% 2.3% 2.5% 3.0% 25.2% 11.3%

Capabilities

The armed forces are tasked with assuring the territorial integrity of Greece and support to Cyprus, as well as contributing to international peacekeeping and peace-support initiatives. Regional tensions with Turkey and (FYR) Macedonia remain. A National Defence Policy was adopted in 2011 which emphasised deterrence, internal cooperation and enhanced situational awareness, as well as primary security tasks. Conscription remains in place, and is particularly important for the army; just under half of its personnel are conscripts. The armed forces have little organic ability to deploy other than regionally. Some procurement plans have been shelved as a result of economic problems – which have led to a reduction in defence spending – while cuts in military salaries, and significant reductions in training and exercises, will have depressed capability and morale.

ACTIVE 143,350 (Army 86,150, Navy 19,000 Air 26,600, Joint 11,600) Paramilitary 4,000

Conscript liability Up to 9 months in all services

RESERVE 216,650 (Army 177,650 Navy 5,000, Air 34,000)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 48,450; 37,700 conscripts (total 86,150)

Units are manned at 3 different levels – Cat A 85% fully ready, Cat B 60% ready in 24 hours, Cat C 20% ready in 48 hours (requiring reserve mobilisation). 3 military regions.

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

4 corps HQ (incl NDC-GR)

1 armd div HQ

3 mech inf div HQ

1 inf div HQ

1 log corps HQ

SPECIAL FORCES

1 comd (1 amph bde, 1 cdo/para bde)

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

5 recce bn

Armoured

4 armd bde (2 armd bn, 1 mech inf bn, 1 SP arty bn)

Mechanised

8 mech inf bde (1 armd bn, 2 mech bn, 1 SP arty bn)

Light

2 inf div

7 inf bde (1 armd bn, 3 inf regt, 1 arty regt)

Air Manoeuvre

1 air mob bde

Amphibious

1 mne bde

Aviation

1 avn bde (1 hel regt with (2 atk hel bn), 2 tpt hel bn, 4 hel bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty regt (1 arty bn, 2 MRL bn)

3 AD bn (2 with I-HAWK, 1 with Tor M1)

3 engr regt

2 engr bn

1 EW regt

10 sigs bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log div (3 log bde)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 1,462: 170 Leopard 2A6HEL; 183 Leopard 2A4; 526 Leopard 1A4/5; 208 M60A1/A3; 375 M48A5

RECCE 229 VBL

AIFV 398 BMP-1

APC 1,883

APC (T) 1,872: 89 Leonidas Mk1/2; 1,685 M113A1/A2; 98 M577

PPV 11 Maxxpro

ARTY 3,353

SP 547: 155mm 442: 418 M109A1B/A2/A3GEA1/A5; 24 PzH 2000; 203mm 105 M110A2

TOWED 410: 105mm 281: 263 M101; 18 M-56; 155mm 129 M114

MRL 147: 122mm 111 RM-70 Dana; 227mm 36 MLRS (incl ATACMS)

MOR 2,249: 81mm 1,629; 107mm 620 M-30 (incl 231 SP)

AT

MSL 1,108

SP 528: 196 HMMWV with 9K133 Kornet-E (AT-14 Spriggan); 42 HMMWV with Milan; 290 M901

MANPATS 580: 262 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 248 Milan; 70 TOW

RCL 3,927:

SP 106mm 581 M40A1

MANPATS 3,346 84mm 2,000 Carl Gustav; 90mm 1,346 EM-67

AIRCRAFTTPTLight 27: 1 Beech 200 King Air (C-12C) 2 Beech 200 King Air (C-12R/AP Huron); 24 Cessna 185 (U-17A/B)

HELICOPTERS

ATK 29: 19 AH-64A Apache; 10 AH-64D Apache

TPT 128: Heavy 15: 9 CH-47D Chinook; 6 CH-47SD Chinook; Medium 4 NH90 TTH; Light 108: 95 Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois); 13 Bell 206 (AB-206) Jet Ranger

UAV ISR Medium 2 Sperwer

AD

SAM 614

SP 113: 21 9K331 Tor-M1 (SA-15 Gauntlet); 38 9K33 Osa-M (SA-8B Gecko); 54 ASRAD HMMWV

TOWED 42 I-HAWK

MANPAD 459 FIM-92A Stinger

GUNS TOWED 727: 20mm 204 Rh 202; 23mm 523 ZU-23-2

RADARLAND 76: 3 ARTHUR, 5 AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder (arty, mor); 8 AN/TPQ-37(V)3; 40 BOR-A; 20 MARGOT

ARV 268: 12 Büffel; 43 Leopard 1; 95 M88A1; 113 M578

VLB 12+: 12 Leopard 1; Leguan

MW Giant Viper

National Guard 33,000 reservists

Internal security role

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

1 inf div

Air Manoeuvre

1 para regt

Aviation

1 avn bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

8 arty bn

4 AD bn

Navy 16,700; 2,300 conscript; (total 19,000)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 8:

4 Poseidon (GER T-209/1200) (of which 1 modernised with AIP technology) with 8 single 533mm TT with SUT HWT

3 Glavkos (GER T-209/1100) with 8 single 533mm TT with UGM-84C Harpoon AShM/SUT HWT

1 Papanikolis (GER T-214) with 8 single 533mm TT with UGM-84C Harpoon AShM/SUT HWT (5 additional vessels expected)

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 13

FRIGATESFFGHM 13:

4 Elli Batch I (NLD Kortenaer Batch 2) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 GMLS with RIM-7M/P Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

2 Elli Batch II (NLD Kortenaer Batch 2) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 GMLS with RIM-7M/P Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx CIWS, 2 76mm gun, (capacity 2 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

3 Elli Batch III (NLD Kortenaer Batch 2) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 lnchr with RIM-7M/P Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

4 Hydra (GER MEKO 200) with 2 quad lnchr with RGM-84G Harpoon AShM, 1 16-cell Mk48 Mod 5 VLS with RIM-162 ESSM SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT each with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx CIWS, 1 127mm gun, (capacity 1 S-70B Seahawk ASW hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 33

CORVETTES FSGM 5 Roussen (Super Vita) with 2 quad lnchr with MM-40 Exocet Block 2 AShM, 1 21-cell Mk49 GMLS with RIM-116 RAM SAM, 1 76mm gun (2 additional vessels in build)

PCFG 12:

5 Kavaloudis (FRA La Combattante II, III, IIIB) with 6 RB 12 Penguin AShM, 2 single 533mm TT with SST-4 HWT, 2 76mm gun

4 Laskos (FRA La Combattante II, III, IIIB) with 4 MM-38 Exocet AShM, 2 single 533mm TT with SST-4 HWT, 2 76mm gun

1 Votsis (FRA La Combattante) with 2 twin Mk-141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 76mm gun

2 Votsis (FRA La Combattante IIA) with 2 twin MM-38 Exocet AShM, 1 76mm gun

PCO 8:

2 Armatolos (DNK Osprey) with 1 76mm gun

2 Kasos with 1 76mm gun

4 Machitis with 1 76mm gun

PB 8: 4 Andromeda (NOR Nasty); 2 Stamou; 2 Tolmi

MINE COUNTERMEASURES 4

MHO 4: 2 Evropi (UK Hunt); 2 Evniki (US Osprey)

AMPHIBIOUS

LANDING SHIPSLST 5:

5 Chios (capacity 4 LCVP; 300 troops) with 1 76mm gun, 1 hel landing platform (for med hel)

LANDING CRAFT 14

LCU 4

LCA 7

LCAC 3 Kefallinia (Zubr) with 2 AK630 CIWS, (capacity either 3 MBT or 10 APC (T); 230 troops)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 49

ABU 2

AG 2 Pandora

AGOR 1 Pytheas

AGS 2: 1 Stravon; 1 Naftilos

AOR 2 Axios (ex-GER Luneburg)

AORH 1 Prometheus (ITA Etna) with 1 Phalanx CIWS

AOT 4 Ouranos

AWT 6 Kerkini

AXS 5

YFU 4

YNT 1 Thetis

YPT 3 Evrotas

YTM 16

   Naval Aviation
   FORCES BY ROLE

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE

1 div with S-70B Seahawk; Bell 212 (AB-212) ASW; SA319 Alouette III

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT ASW (5 P-3B Orion in store)

HELICOPTERS

ASW 19: 8 Bell 212 (AB-212) ASW; 11 S-70B Seahawk

MRH 2 SA319 Alouette III

MSL

ASM AGM-119 Penguin, AGM-114 Hellfire

Air Force 22,050; 4,550 conscripts (total 26,600)

   Tactical Air Force
   FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with A-7E/H Corsair II; TA-7C Corsair II

2 sqn with F-4E Phantom II

3 sqn with F-16CG/DG Block 30/50 Fighting Falcon

3 sqn with F-16CG/DG Block 52+ Fighting Falcon

1 sqn with F-16C/D Block 52+ ADV Fighting Falcon

1 sqn with Mirage 2000-5EG/BG Mk2

1 sqn with Mirage 2000EG/BG

ISR

1 sqn with RF-4E Phantom II

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING

1 sqn with EMB-145H Erieye

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 277 combat capable

FGA 234: 34 F-4E Phantom II; 70 F-16CG/DG Block 30/50 Fighting Falcon: 56 F-16CG/DG Block 52+; 30 F- 16 C/D Block 52+ ADV Fighting Falcon; 2Mirage 2000-5EG Mk2; 5 Mirage 2000-5BG Mk2; 17 Mirage2000EG; 2 Mirage 2000BG

ATK 28: 20 A-7E/H Corsair II; 8 TA-7C Corsair II

ISR 15 RF-4E Phantom II*

AEW 4 EMB-145AEW (EMB-145H) Erieye

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L/P Sidewinder; R-550 Magic 2 IIR IRIS-T; Mica IR; SARH Super 530; ARH AIM-120B/C AMRAAM; Mica RF

ASM AGM-65A/B/G Maverick; AGM-154C JSOW

LACM SCALP EG

AShM AM 39 Exocet

ARM AGM-88 HARM

BOMBS

Conventional Mk81; Mk82; Mk83; Mk84

Electro-optical guided: GBU-8B HOBOS

Laser-guided: GBU-12/GBU-16 Paveway II; GBU-24 Paveway III

INS/GPS-guided GBU-31 JDAM

   Air Defence
   FORCES BY ROLE

AIR DEFENCE

6 sqn/bty with PAC-3 Patriot (MIM-104 A/B SOJC/D GEM)

2 sqn/bty with S-300PMU-1 (SA-10C Grumble)

12 bty with Skyguard/RIM-7 Sparrow/guns; Crotale NG/GR; Tor-M1 (SA-15 Gauntlet)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AD

SAMTOWED 61+: 36 PAC-3 Patriot; 12 S-300 PMU-1 (SA-10C Grumble); 9 Crotale NG/GR; 4 9K331 Tor-M1 (SA-15 Gauntlet); some Skyguard/Sparrow

GUNS 35+ 35mm

   Air Support Command
   FORCES BY ROLE

SEARCH & RESCUE/TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AS332C Super Puma (SAR/CSAR)

1 sqn with AW109; Bell 205A (AB-205A) (SAR); Bell 212 (AB-212 - VIP, tpt)

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-27J Spartan

1 sqn with C-130B/H Hercules

1 sqn with EMB-135BJ Legacy; ERJ-135LR; Gulfstream V

FIRE FIGHTING

2 sqn with CL-215; CL-415

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TPT 26: Medium 23: 8 C-27J Spartan; 5 C-130B Hercules; 10 C-130H Hercules; Light 2: 1 EMB-135BJ Legacy; 1 ERJ-135LR; PAX 1 Gulfstream V

FF 21: 13 CL-215; 8 CL-415

HELICOPTERS

TPT 31: Medium 11 AS332C Super Puma; Light 20: 13 Bell 205A (AB-205A) (SAR); 4 Bell 212 (AB-212) (VIP, Tpt); 3 AW109

   Air Training Command
   FORCES BY ROLE

TRAINING

2 sqn with T-2C/E Buckeye

2 sqn with T-6A/B Texan II

1 sqn with T-41D

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFTTRG 104: 5 T-2C Buckeye; 35 T-2E Buckeye; 20 T-6A Texan II; 25 T-6B Texan II; 19 T-41D

   Paramilitary • Coast Guard and Customs 4,000
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFTTPTLight 4: 2 Cessna 172RG Cutlass; 2 TB-20 Trinidad

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1975/1986/2001)

Specific legislation: ‘Law 2295/95’ (1995))

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the Government Council on Foreign Affairs and Defence

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 3

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 2

Cyprus

Army 950 (ELDYK army); ε200 (officers/NCO seconded to Greek-Cypriot National Guard) (total 1,150)

1 mech bde (1 armd bn, 2 mech inf bn, 1 arty bn); 61 M48A5 MOLF MBT; 80 Leonidas APC; 12 M114 arty; 6 M110A2 arty

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 57; 1 PB

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 120; 1 mech inf coy

OSCE • Kosovo 4

FOREIGN FORCES

United States US European Command: 380; 1 naval base at Makri; 1 naval base at Soudha Bay; 1 air base at Iraklion

Hungary

Hungary HUN
Hungarian Forint f 2012 2013 2014
GDP f 29.2tr 30.4tr
US$ 127bn 133bn
per capita US$ 12,736 13,344
Growth % -6.38 -4.21
Inflation % 5.70 3.20
Def exp f 298bn
US$ 1.32bn
Def bdgt a f 269bn 242bn
US$ 1.2bn 1.1bn
FMA (US) US$ 1m 1m 0.45m
US$1=f 225.02 220.31
a Excludes military pensions
Population 9,939,470
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.6% 2.9% 3.2% 3.2% 24.2% 6.5%
Female 7.2% 2.7% 3.1% 3.1% 25.4% 11.0%

Capabilities

Hungary’s armed forces have shifted to a professional structure, with a much smaller order of battle but better-equipped and better-trained troops. With defence expenditure under pressure, however, budgetary constraints have curtailed procurement plans. Hungary’s defence policy provides for operational deployments under both NATO and the EU; it has contributed troops to ISAF operations and conducts regular training exercises with bilateral and multinational partners. Hungary will contribute to the planned Visegrad CBRN battalion and manoeuvre battlegroup as part of plans for increased defence cooperation between the four Visegrad countries. The country is also host to the multinational Strategic Airlift Capability’s C-17 unit. It has agreed a ten-year extension on its lease of Gripen fighter aircraft from Sweden.

ACTIVE 26,500 (Army 10,300, Air 5,900 Joint 10,300) Paramilitary 12,000

RESERVE 44,000 (Army 35,200 Air 8,800)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Hungary’s armed forces have reorganised into a joint force.

Land Component 10,300 (incl riverine element)

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bn

MANOEUVRE

Mechanised

2 mech inf bde (total: 4 mech inf, 1 lt inf, 1 mixed bn, 2 log bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 engr regt

1 EOD/rvn regt

1 CBRN bn

1 sigs regt

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 spt bde (1 log regt)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 30 T-72

RECCE 24+: 24 K90 CBRN Recce; PSZH-IV CBRN Recce

AIFV 120 BTR-80A

APC (W) 260 BTR-80

ARTY 68

TOWED 152mm 18 D-20

MOR 82mm 50

ATMSLMANPATS 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 9K113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS PBR 2

AEV BAT-2

ARV BMP-1 VPV; T-54/T-55; VT-55A

VLB BLG-60; MTU; TMM

Air Component 5,900

Flying hours 50 hrs/yr

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with Gripen C/D

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-26 Curl

TRAINING

1 sqn with Yak-52

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-24 Hind

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; Mi-17 Hip H

AIR DEFENCE

1 regt (9 bty with Mistral; 3 bty with 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful))

1 radar regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 14 combat capable

FGA 14: 12 Gripen C; 2 Gripen D

TPTLight 4 An-26 Curl

TRG 8 Yak-52

HELICOPTERS

ATK 11: 3 Mi-24D Hind D; 6 Mi-24V Hind E; 2 Mi-24P Hind F

MRH 7 Mi-17 Hip H

TPTMedium 10 Mi-8 Hip

AD SAM 61

SP 16 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful)

MANPAD Mistral

RADAR: 3 RAT-31DL, 6 P-18: 6 SZT-68U; 14 P-37

MSL

AAM IR AIM-9 Sidewinder; R-73 (AA-11 Archer) SARH R-27 (AA-10 Alamo A); ARH AIM-120C AMRAAM

ASM 250: 20 AGM-65 Maverick; 150 3M11 Falanga (AT-2 Swatter); 80 9K113 Shturm-V (AT-6 Spiral)

Paramilitary 12,000

   Border Guards 12,000 (to reduce)

Ministry of Interior

   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

1 (Budapest) paramilitary district (7 rapid reaction coy)

11 (regt/district) paramilitary regt

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (W) 68 BTR-80

Cyber

There is no dedicated cyber organisation, but IT network management contains INFOSEC and cyber-defence elements. In February 2012, the government adopted a National Security Strategy, noting an intent to prevent and avert cyber attacks. The MoD has also developed a Military Cyber Defence concept.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Legislation: Fundamental Law (2011)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: Government decides on cross-border troop movements or employment, in the case of NATO (Paragraph 2.) For operations not based on NATO or EU decisions, the Fundamental Law gives parliament the prerogative to decide on the employment of Hungarian armed forces or foreign forces in, or from, Hungarian territory.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 354; 1 lt inf coy

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 157; 1 inf coy

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1

Cyprus

UN • UNFICYP 77; 1 inf pl

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 2

Egypt

MFO 42; 1 MP unit

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 4

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 13

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 201; 1 inf coy (KTM)

OSCE • Kosovo 2

OSCE • Serbia 1

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 4

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 7 obs

Iceland

Iceland ISL
Icelandic Krona K 2012 2013 2014
GDP Kr 1.83tr 1.97tr
US$ 13.7bn 14.5bn
per capita US$ 41,739 44,121
Growth % -1.66 -0.01
Inflation % 5.19 4.65
Sy Bdgt a Kr 4.11bn 4.64bn
US$ 33m 37m
US$1=K 125.11 126.23
a Coast Guard budget
Population 315,281
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 10.0% 3.6% 3.8% 3.4% 23.0% 6.1%
Female 9.8% 3.5% 3.7% 3.4% 22.5% 7.1%

Capabilities

The country has no armed forces, though there is a coast guard that operates ships, and fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. A NATO member, the country is reliant on other Alliance partners for air policing and air defence.

ACTIVE NIL Paramilitary 200

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Paramilitary

   Iceland Coast Guard 200
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 3

PSOH: 2 Aegir

PSO 1 Thor

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORTAGS 1 Baldur

AIRCRAFTTPTLight 1 DHC-8-300

HELICOPTERS

TPTMedium 3 AS332L1 Super Puma

FOREIGN FORCES

NATO • Iceland Air Policing: Aircraft and personnel from various NATO members on a rotating basis.

Ireland

Ireland IRL
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 167bn 174bn
US$ 210bn 222bn
per capita US$ 45,888 48,230
Growth % 1.64 1.89
Inflation % 1.92 1.32
Def bdgt a 893m 901m 898m
US$ 1.15bn 1.2bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions and capital expenditure
Population 4,775,982
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 10.9% 3.0% 3.1% 3.6% 23.8% 5.6%
Female 10.5% 2.9% 3.0% 3.7% 23.5% 6.6%

Capabilities

The armed forces’ primary task is to ‘defend the state against armed aggression’. They are also routinely called upon to conduct EOD operations within Ireland due to paramilitary activity, and conduct a range of security and support services such as maritime patrols and fishery protection. Irish forces also participate in UN peace-support, crisis-management and humanitarian-relief operations, most significantly in Lebanon and the Golan Heights. The army is the largest service, supported by a small air corps and naval service. During 2013, army units were consolidated within a new two-brigade structure and personnel were redeployed from support functions to operational units. Ireland’s armed forces have been trimmed as a result of Dublin’s economic difficulties, with further defence budget reductions planned for 2013–14, while some procurement programmes are being extended over a longer period to spread costs. A new Defence White Paper is expected to be published in 2014.

ACTIVE 9,350 (Army 7,500 Navy 1,050 Air 800)

RESERVE 4,630 (Army 4,350 Navy 260 Air 20)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 7,500

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 ranger coy

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 armd recce sqn

Mechanised

1 mech inf coy

Light

1 inf bde (1 cav recce sqn, 4 inf bn, 1 arty regt (3 fd arty bty, 1 AD bty), 1 fd engr coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 MP coy, 1 tpt coy)

1 inf bde (1 cav recce sqn, 3 inf bn, 1 arty regt (3 fd arty bty, 1 AD bty), 1 fd engr coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 MP coy, l tpt coy)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

LT TK 14 Scorpion

RECCE 15 Piranha IIIH

APC 94

APC (W) 67: 65 Piranha III; 2 XA-180 Sisu

PPV 27 RG-32M

ARTY 519

TOWED 24: 105mm 24 L-118 Light Gun

MOR 495: 81mm 400; 120mm 95

AT

MSLMANPATS Javelin

RCL 84mm Carl Gustav

AD

SAMMANPAD 7 RBS-70

GUNS TOWED 40mm 32 L/70 each with 8 Flycatcher

MW Aardvark Mk 2

   Reserves 4,350 reservists (to reduce to 3,800)
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 (integrated) armd recce sqn

4 (integrated) cav tp

Mechanised

1 (integrated) mech inf coy

Light

23 (integrated) inf coy

COMBAT SUPPORT

4 (integrated) arty bty

2 engr pl

2 MP pl

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

2 med det

4 tpt pl

Navy 1,050

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 8

PSOH 1 Eithne with 1 57mm gun

PSO 2 Roisin with 1 76mm gun

PCO 5: 3 Emer; 2 Orla (UK Peacock) with 1 76mm gun

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 6

AXS 2

YFL 3

YTM 1

Air Corps 800

2 ops wg; 2 spt wg; 1 trg wg; 1 comms and info sqn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

MP 2 CN-235 MPA

TPT 7: Light 6: 5 Cessna FR-172H; 1 Learjet 45 (VIP); PAX 1 Gulfstream GIV

TRG 7 PC-9M

HELICOPTERS:

MRH 6 AW139

TPT Light 2 EC135 P2 (incl trg/medevac; 1 non-operational)

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1937)

Specific legislation: ‘Defence (Amendment) Act’ 2006

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) By parliament; b) by government if scenario for deployment corresponds with conditions laid out in Art. 3 of 2006 ‘Defence (Amendment) Act’ which exempts from parliamentary approval deployments for purposes of participation in exercises abroad; monitoring, observation, advisory or reconnaissance missions; and humanitarian operations in response to actual or potential disasters or emergencies.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 7

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 7

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 6

Côte D’Ivoire

UN • UNOCI 2 obs

Democratic Republic of the Congo

UN • MONUSCO 3 obs

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 358; 1 mech inf bn(-)

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 8

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 13 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 12

OSCE • Kosovo 6

OSCE • Serbia 3

Syria/Israel

UN • UNDOF 119 obs; 1 inf coy

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 10

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 3 obs

Italy

Italy ITA
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 1.56tr 1.59tr
US$ 2.01tr 2.08tr
per capita US$ 33,115 34,034
Growth % 0.94 1.07
Inflation % 3.30 1.99
Def exp 20.6bn
US$ 26.5bn
Def bdgt a 18.7bn 19bn 17.9bn
US$ 24bn 25.2bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions
Population 61,482,297
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.1% 2.4% 2.6% 2.7% 24.6% 8.9%
Female 6.7% 2.4% 2.6% 2.8% 25.4% 11.9%

Capabilities

The armed forces’ primary role is territorial defence and participation in NATO operations, with the ability for extended deployment as part of a multinational force. The services are struggling to cope with funding restrictions, with some officials voicing worry over the long-term impact of the constraints on the ability to conduct missions. Reductions up to 2025 in the size of the navy are a particular concern, however it did take delivery of the first of eight FREMM frigates in May 2013. The air force also started to receive fully-upgraded Tornado ECR aircraft. While the overall number of F-35s on order has been cut, the senate voted to support the programme in July 2013, approving the purchase of 60 F-35A and 30 B models. Defence expenditure remains under pressure. The armed forces have been undergoing a process of reform involving force reductions and modernised capabilities for over a decade. The air force’s ability to support long-range deployment has been boosted by the belated entry into service of its four KC-767 tanker-transports. It lacks, however, a dedicated strategic airlift platform. The forces train regularly at the national and NATO Alliance levels, and support a number of overseas deployments.

ACTIVE 176,000 (Army 103,100 Navy 31,000 Air 41,900) Paramilitary 183,500

RESERVES 18,300 (Army 13,400 Navy 4,900)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Space

SATELLITES 6

COMMUNICATIONS 2 Sicral

IMAGERY 4 Cosmo (Skymed)

Army 103,100

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

1 (NRDC-IT) corps HQ (1 sigs bde, 1 spt regt)

MANOEUVRE

Mechanised

1 (Friuli) div (1 (Ariete) armd bde (2 tk regt, 1 mech inf regt, 1 arty regt, 1 engr regt, 1 log bn); 1 (Pozzuolo del Friuli) cav bde (3 cav regt, 1 amph regt, 1 arty regt); 1 (Folgore) AB bde (3 para regt, 1 cbt engr regt); 1 (Friuli) air mob bde (1 cav regt, 1 air mob regt, 2 avn regt))

1 (Acqui) div (1 (Pinerolo) mech bde (3 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 cbt engr regt); 1 (Granatieri) mech bde (1 cav regt, 2 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt); 1 (Garibaldi Bersaglieri) mech bde (1 cav regt, 1 tk regt, 2 hy mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 cbt engr regt); 1 (Aosta) mech bde (1 cav regt, 3 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty regt, 1 cbt engr regt); 1 (Sassari) lt mech bde (3 mech inf regt, 1 cbt engr regt))

Mountain

1 (Tridentina) mtn div (1 (Taurinense) mtn bde (1 cav regt, 3 mtn inf regt, 1 arty regt, 1 mtn cbt engr regt, 1 spt bn); 1 (Julia) mtn bde with (3 mtn inf regt, 1 arty regt, 1 mtn cbt engr regt, 1 spt bn); 1 mtn inf trg regt))

Aviation

1 avn bde (3 avn regt, 1 avn sqn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty comd (1 hy arty regt, 2 arty regt, 1 psyops regt, 1 NBC regt)

1 AD comd (2 (HAWK) AD regt, 2 (SHORAD) AD regt)

1 engr comd (3 engr regt, 1 CIMIC regt)
1 EW/sigs comd (1 EW/ISTAR bde (1 ISTAR bn, 1 EW bn, 1 (HUMINT) int bn); 1 sigs bde with (6 sigs bn))

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log comd (4 (manoeuvre) log regt, 4 tpt regt)

1 spt regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 200 C1 Ariete

RECCE 314: 300 B-1 Centauro; 14 VAB-RECO NBC

AIFV 308: 200 VCC-80 Dardo; 108 VBM 8×8 Freccia

APC 915

APC (T) 361: 246 Bv-206; 115 M113 (incl variants)

APC (W) 537 Puma

PPV 17: 6 Buffalo; 11 Cougar

AAV 16: 14 AAVP-7; 1 AAVC-7; 1 AAVR-7

ARTY 915

SP 155mm 192: 124 M109L; 68 PzH 2000

TOWED 155mm 164 FH-70

MRL 227mm 22 MLRS

MOR 537: 81mm 212; 120mm 325: 183 Brandt; 142 RT-F1

AT

MSLMANPATS Spike; Milan

RCL 80mm Folgore

RL 110mm Pzf 3 Panzerfaust 3

AIRCRAFT TPTLight 6: 3 Do-228 (ACTL-1); 3 P-180 Avanti

HELICOPTERS

ATK 50 AW129CBT Mangusta

MRH 21 Bell 412 (AB-412) Twin Huey

TPT 154: Heavy 18 CH-47C Chinook; Medium 21 NH90 TTH; Light 115: 10 AW109; 56 Bell 205 (AB-205); 32 Bell 206 Jet Ranger (AB-206); 17 Bell 212 (AB-212)

AD

SAM

TOWED 48: 16 SAMP-T; 32 Skyguard/Aspide

MANPAD FIM-92A Stinger

GUNS SP 25mm 64 SIDAM

AEV 40 Leopard 1; M113

ARV 137 Leopard 1

VLB 64 Biber

MW 2 Miniflail

Navy 31,000

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 6:

4 Pelosi (imp Sauro, 3rd and 4th series) with 6 single 533mm TT with Type-A-184 HWT

2 Salvatore Todaro (Type-U212A) with 6 single 533mm TT with Type-A-184 HWT/DM2A4 HWT (2 additional vessels under construction)

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 17

AIRCRAFT CARRIERSCVS 2:

1 G. Garibaldi with 2 octuple Albatros lnchr with Aspide SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, (capacity mixed air group of either 12–18 AV-8B Harrier II; 17 SH-3D Sea King or AW101 Merlin)

1 Cavour with 1 32-cell VLS with Aster 15 SAM, 2 76mm guns, (capacity mixed air group of 18–20 AV-8B Harrier II; 12 AW101 Merlin)

DESTROYERSDDGHM 5:

2 Andrea Doria with 2 quad lnchr with Otomat Mk2A AShM, 1 48-cell VLS with Aster 15/Aster 30 SAM, 2 single 324mm ASTT with MU90 LWT, 3 76mm gun, (capacity 1 AW101 Merlin/NH90 hel)

2 Luigi Durand de la Penne (ex-Animoso) with 2 quad lnchr with Milas AS/Otomat Mk 2A AShM, 1 Mk13 GMLS with SM-1MR SAM, 1 octuple Albatros lnchr with Aspide SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 127mm gun, 3 76mm gun, (capacity 2 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

1 Bergamini with 2 quad lnchr with Otomat Mk2A AShM, 1 11-cell VLS with Aster 15/Aster 30 SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT with MU90 LWT, 1 127mm gun, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 AW101/NH90 hel)

FRIGATESFFGHM 10:

2 Artigliere with 8 single lnchr with Otomat Mk 2 AShM, 1 octuple Albatros lnchr with Aspide SAM, 1 127mm gun, (capacity 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

8 Maestrale with 4 single lnchr with Otomat Mk2 AShM, 1 octuple Albatros lnchr with Aspide SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 127mm gun, (capacity 2 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 20

CORVETTES 6

FSM 4 Minerva with 1 octuple Albatros lnchr with Aspide SAM, 1 76mm gun

FS 2 Minerva with 1 76mm gun (2 more in reserve)

PSOH 6:

4 Comandante Cigala Fuligosi with 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 Bell 212 (AB-212)/NH90 hel)

2 Comandante Cigala Fuligosi (capacity 1 Bell 212 (AB-212)/NH-90 hel)

PCO 4 Cassiopea with 1 76mm gun (capacity 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

PB 4 Esploratore

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 10

MHO 10: 8 Gaeta; 2 Lerici

AMPHIBIOUS

PRINCIPAL AMPHIBIOUS SHIPSLPD 3:

2 San Giorgio with 1 76mm gun (capacity 3-5 AW101/NH90/SH3-D/Bell 212; 1 CH-47 Chinook tpt hel; 3 LCM 2 LCVP; 30 trucks; 36 APC (T); 350 troops)

1 San Giusto with 1 76mm gun (capacity 4 AW101 Merlin; 1 CH-47 Chinook tpt hel; 3 LCM 2 LCVP; 30 trucks; 36 APC (T); 350 troops)

LANDING CRAFT 30: 17 LCVP; 13 LCM

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 128

ABU 5 Ponza

AFD 19

AGE 2: 1 Vincenzo Martellota; 1 Raffaele Rosseti

AGI 1 Elettra

AGOR 1 Leonardo (coastal)

AGS 3: 1 Ammiraglio Magnaghi with 1 hel landing platform; 2 Aretusa (coastal)

AKSL 6 Gorgona

AORH 3: 1 Etna with 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 AW101/NH90 hel); 2 Stromboli with 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 AW101/NH90 hel)

AOT 7 Depoli

ARSH 1 Anteo (capacity 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

ATS 6 Ciclope

AT 9 (coastal)

AWT 7: 1 Bormida; 2 Simeto; 4 Panarea

AXL 3 Aragosta

AXS 8: 1 Amerigo Vespucci; 1 Palinuro; 1 Italia; 5 Caroly

YDT 2 Pedretti

YFT 1 Aragosta

YFU 2 Men 215

YPT 1 Men 212

YTB 9 Porto

YTM 32

   Naval Aviation 2,200
   FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with AV-8B Harrier II; TAV-8B Harrier

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE/TRANSPORT

5 sqn with AW101 ASW Merlin; Bell 212 ASW (AB- 212AS); Bell 212 (AB-212); NH90 NFH

MARITIME PATROL

1 flt with P-180

AIRBORNE EARLY WANRING & CONTROL

1 flt with AW101 Merlin AEW

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 16 combat capable

FGA 16: 14 AV-8B Harrier II; 2 TAV-8B Harrier

MP 3 P-180

HELICOPTERS

ASW 36: 10 AW101 ASW Merlin; 16 Bell 212 ASW; 10 NH90 NFH

AEW 4 AW101 Merlin AEW

TPT 14: Medium 8 AW101 Merlin; Light 6 Bell 212 (AB-212)

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

ASM AGM-65 Maverick

AShM Marte Mk 2/S

   Marines 2,000
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

1 mne regt (1 SF coy, 1 aslt bn, 1 log bn)

1 landing craft gp

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log regt (1 log bn)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (T) 24 VCC-2

AAV 28: 15 AAVP-7; 12 AAVC-7; 1 AAVR-7

ARTYMOR 12: 81mm 8 Brandt; 120mm 4 Brandt

ATMSLMANPATS Milan; Spike

ADSAMMANPAD FIM-92A Stinger

ARV 1 AAV-7RAI

Air Force 41,900

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

4 sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

2 sqn with AMX Ghibli

1 (SEAD/EW) sqn with Tornado ECR

2 sqn with Tornado IDS

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK/ISR

1 sqn with AMX Ghibli

MARITIME PATROL

1 sqn (opcon Navy) with BR1150 Atlantic

TANKER/TRANSPORT

1 sqn with KC-767A

COMBAT SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with AB-212 ICO 

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 wg with AW139 (HH-139A); Bell 212 (HH-212); HH-3F Pelican

TRANSPORT

2 (VIP) sqn with A319CJ; AW139 (VH139A); Falcon 50; Falcon 900 Easy; Falcon 900EX; SH-3D Sea King

2 sqn with C-130J/C-130J-30/KC-130J Hercules

1 sqn with C-27J Spartan

1 (calibration) sqn with P-180 Avanti

TRAINING

1 sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon

1 sqn with MB-339PAN (aerobatic team)

1 sqn with MD-500D/E (NH-500D/E)

1 sqn with Bell 212 (AB-212)

1 sqn with Tornado

1 sqn with AMX-T Ghibli

1 sqn with MB-339A

1 sqn with MB-339CD*

1 sqn with SF-260EA

ISR UAV

1 sqn with MQ-9 Reaper; RQ-1B Predator

AIR DEFENCE

2 bty with Spada

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 245 combat capable

FTR 69 Eurofighter Typhoon

FGA 127: 55 Tornado IDS; 64 AMX Ghibli; 8 AMX-T Ghibli

EW/FGA 15 Tornado ECR*

ASW 6 BR1150 Atlantic

TKR/TPT 6: 4 KC-767A; 2 KC-130J Hercules

TPT 66: Medium 31: 9 C-130J Hercules; 10 C-130J-30 Hercules; 12 C-27J Spartan; Light 25: 15 P-180 Avanti; 10 S-208 (liaison); PAX 10: 3 A319CJ; 2 Falcon 50 (VIP); 2 Falcon 900 Easy; 3 Falcon 900EX (VIP)

TRG 103: 3 M-346; 21 MB-339A; 28 MB-339CD*; 21 MB-339PAN (aerobatics); 30 SF-260EA

HELICOPTERS

MRH 58: 10 AW139 (HH-139A/VH-139A); 2 MD-500D (NH-500D); 46 MD-500E (NH-500E)

SAR 12 HH-3F Pelican

TPT 31: Medium 2 SH-3D Sea King (liaison/VIP); Light 29 Bell 212 (HH-212)/AB-212 ICO

UAVISRHeavy 11: 6 MQ-9A Reaper; 5 RQ-1B Predator

ADSAMTOWED Spada

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L Sidewinder; IIR IRIS-T; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

ARM AGM-88 HARM

LACM SCALP EG/Storm Shadow

BOMBS

Laser-guided/GPS: Enhanced Paveway II; Enhanced Paveway III

Joint Special Forces Command (COFS)

   Army
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF regt (9th Assalto paracadutisti)

1 SF regt (185th RAO)

1 spec ops regt (4th Alpini paracadutisti)

   Navy (COMSUBIN)
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF gp (GOI)

1 diving gp (GOS)

   Air Force
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 sqn (17th Stormo Incursori)

   Paramilitary
      Carabinieri
      FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 spec ops gp (GIS)

Paramilitary 183,500

   Carabinieri 104,200

The Carabinieri are organisationally under the MoD. They are a separate service in the Italian Armed Forces as well as a police force with judicial competence.

      Mobile and Specialised Branch
      FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Aviation

1 hel gp

Other

1 (mobile) paramilitary div (1 bde (1st) with (1 horsed cav regt, 11 mobile bn); 1 bde (2nd) with (1 (1st) AB regt, 2 (7th & 13th) mobile regt))

      EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC 15

APC (T) 3 VCC-2

APC (W) 12 Puma

AIRCRAFT TPT Light: 1 P-180 Avanti

HELICOPTERS

MRH 31 Bell 412 (AB-412)

TPTLight 19 AW109

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS PB 68

      Customs 68,100

(Servizio Navale Guardia Di Finanza)

      EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 179

PCF 1 Antonio Zara

PBF 146: 19 Bigliani; 24 Corrubia; 9 Mazzei; 62 V-2000; 32 V-5000/V-6000

PB 32: 24 Buratti; 8 Meatini

      Coast Guard 11,200

(Guardia Costiera – Capitanerie Di Porto)

      EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 328

PCO 3: 2 Dattilo; 1 Gregoretti

PCC 43: 5 Diciotti; 1 Saettia; 28 200-class; 9 400-class

PB 282: 19 300-class; 3 454-class; 72 500-class; 12 600-class; 33 700-class; 94 800-class; 49 2000-class

AIRCRAFTMP 9: 6 ATR-42 MP Surveyor, 1 P-180GC; 2 PL-166-DL3

HELICOPTERS MRH 13: 4 AW139; 9 Bell 412SP (AB-412SP Griffin)

Cyber

Overall responsibility for cyber security rests with the presidency of the Council of Ministers and the Inter-Ministerial Situation and Planning Group which includes, among others, representatives from the defence, interior and foreign affairs ministries. A Joint Integrated Concept on Computer Network Operations was approved in 2009. In 2011, an Inter-Forces Committee on Cyberspace (CIAC) was established to advise the chief of defence staff. In January 2012, an Inter-Forces Policy Directive was approved to provide a vision for both operational management (under the C4 Defence Command, the Inter-Forces Intelligence Centre and individual armed forces) and strategic direction (under the chief of defence staff (CDS) and CIAC). CDS established the Computer and Emergency Response Team (CERT-Defence) to promote the security of IT networks and share knowledge on cyber threats and cyber defence including through the collaboration with national and international CERTs.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1949)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the government upon approval by the parliament.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 2,825; 1 mech inf bde HQ; 1 mech inf regt; 1 para regt; AW129 Mangusta; CH-47; NH90; Tornado; C-130

UN • UNAMA 2 obs

Albania

Delegazione Italiana Esperti (DIE) 27

Bosnia-Herzegovina

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 8

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 1

Egypt

MFO 78; 3 coastal patrol unit

Gulf of Aden & Indian Ocean

EU Operation Atalanta 1 FFGHM

India/Pakistan

UN • UNMOGIP 3 obs

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 1,137; 1 cav bde HQ; 1 amph bn; 1 hel flt; 1 engr coy; 1 sigs coy; 1 CIMIC coy(-)

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 7

Malta

26; 2 Bell 212 (HH-212)

Mediterranean Sea

NATO • SNMG 2: 1 FFGHM

NATO • SNMCMG 2: 1 MHO

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 7 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 500; 1 MRL BG HQ;

OSCE • Kosovo 12

OSCE • Serbia 4

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 1 obs

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 22

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 5 obs

FOREIGN FORCES

United States US European Command: 11,100

Army 3,500; 1 AB IBCT; some M119A2

Navy 3,300; 1 HQ (US Navy Europe (USNAVEUR)) at Naples; 1 HQ (6th Fleet) at Gaeta; 1 MP Sqn with 9 P-3C Orion at Sigonella

USAF 4,200; 1 ftr wg with (2 ftr sqn with 21 F-16C/D Fighting Falcon) at Aviano 

USMC 100

Latvia

Latvia LVA
Latvian Lat L 2012 2013 2014
GDP L 16.5bn 17.5bn
US$ 28.4bn 31.1bn
per capita US$ 13,900 15,285
Growth % -2.37 -1.47
Inflation % 2.29 1.80
Def exp L 140m
US$ 256m
Def bdgt a L 140m 158m
US$ 256m 300m
FMA (US) US$ 2.2m 2.2m 2.3m
US$1=L 0.55 0.53
a Includes military pensions
Population 2,178,443
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.0% 2.9% 3.8% 4.0% 23.6% 5.8%
Female 6.6% 2.7% 3.6% 3.9% 25.1% 11.0%

Capabilities

Latvia’s armed forces are smaller and less well-equipped than its neighbour Estonia, despite having nearly twice the population. The small army is essentially a light infantry force, supported by a small number of utility aircraft, and the navy operates a handful of patrol and mine-countermeasures vessels. Procurement plans include air-surveillance radars and SHORAD. Latvian forces completed structural reforms in 2009–10, and now plan to improve education, supply and maintenance, as well as to develop international cooperation. Latvia’s defence budget remains relatively low, at approximately 1% of GDP, with a plan to reach the NATO-required 2% only by 2020. Major development projects over the coming decade include a combat engineering capability, a mechanisation process involving the procurement of armoured personnel carriers, and replacement transport helicopters. Latvia participates in NATO and EU missions, and the country has deployed personnel with ISAF. Forces train regularly with NATO partners and in other multilateral exercises. Air policing is provided by NATO states on a rotational basis.

ACTIVE 5,310 (Army 1,250 Navy 550 Air 310 Joint Staff 2,600 National Guard 600)

RESERVE 7,850 (National Guard 7,850)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Joint 2,600

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF unit

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 MP bn

Army 1,250

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

1 inf bde (2 inf bn, 1 cbt spt bn HQ, 1 CSS bn HQ)

National Guard 600; 7,850 part-time (8,450 in total)
FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

11 inf bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bn

1 AD bn

1 engr bn

1 NBC bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

3 spt bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 3 T-55 (trg)

APC PPV 8 Cougar (on loan from US)

ARTY 76

TOWED 100mm 23 K-53

MOR 53: 81mm 28 L16; 120mm 25 M120

AT

MANPATS Spike-LR

RCL 84mm Carl Gustav

GUNS 90mm 130

AD

SAMMANPAD RBS-70

GUNSTOWED 40mm 24 L/70

Navy 550 (incl Coast Guard)

Naval Forces Flotilla separated into an MCM squadron and a patrol boat squadron. LVA, EST and LTU have set up a joint naval unit, BALTRON, with bases at Liepaja, Riga, Ventspils (LVA), Tallinn (EST), Klaipeda (LTU). Each nation contributes 1–2 MCMVs

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 5

PB 5: 1 Storm (NOR) with 1 76mm gun; 4 Skrunda (GER Swath) (1 more vessel in build)

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 6

MHO 5 Imanta (NLD Alkmaar/Tripartite)

MCCS 1 Vidar (NOR)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 2

AXL 2: 1 Storm (NOR) with 1 76mm gun; 1 Varonis (comd and spt ship, ex-Buyskes, NLD)

   Coast Guard

Under command of the Latvian Naval Forces.

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS

PB 6: 1 Astra; 5 KBV 236 (SWE)

Air Force 310

Main tasks are air space control and defence, maritime and land SAR and air transportation.

FORCES BY ROLE

AIR DEFENCE

1 AD bn

1 radar sqn (radar/air ctrl)

AIRCRAFT TPTLight 4 An-2 Colt

HELICOPTERS

MRH 4 Mi-17 Hip H

TPTLight 2 PZL Mi-2 Hoplite

Paramilitary

   State Border Guard

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS

PB 3: 1 Valpas (FIN); 1 Lokki (FIN); 1 Randa

Cyber

A Cyber Defence Unit is under development within the National Guard. A National Cyber Security Strategy is also under development. Cyber defence capabilities are under development, and technical capabilities are provided according to NATO standards.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1922)

Specific legislation: ‘Law on Participation of the National Armed Forces of Latvia in International Operations’ (1995) (Annex of 21 Jan 2009 allows Latvian armed forces to take part in quick response units formed by NATO/EU)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) By parliament (Section 5 I of the 1995 ‘Law on Participation’, in combination with Art. 73 of constitution); b) by cabinet, for rescue or humanitarian operations (Section 5 II of the 1995 law) or military exercises in non-NATO states (Section 9 of the 1995 law); c) by defence minister for rescue and humanitarian aid operations in NATO/EU states. Latvian units can be transferred under the control of an international organisation or another country to conduct international operations for a limited time frame only in compliance with and under conditions defined by a Parliamentary decree.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 141

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 2

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 12

Lithuania

Lithuania LTU
Lithuanian Litas L 2012 2013 2014
GDP L 120bn 128bn
US$ 42.2bn 45.9bn
per capita US$ 14,018 15,358
Growth % 5.58 4.16
Inflation % 3.17 2.13
Def exp L 883m
US$ 329m
Def bdgt a L 852m 925m 1.18bn
US$ 317m 355m
FMA (US) US$ 2.55m 2.55m 2.55m
US$1=L 2.68 2.61
a Excludes military pensions
Population 3,515,858
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.0% 2.9% 3.8% 4.0% 23.6% 5.8%
Female 6.6% 2.7% 3.6% 3.9% 25.1% 11.0%

Capabilities

Like its Baltic neighbours Estonia and Latvia, Lithuania is a NATO member with small armed forces. The army is by far the largest of the three, supported by smaller air and naval arms. Reform and re-equipment programmes are under way, intended to provide deployable land forces drawn from a motorised infantry brigade, but continue to be slowed by funding constraints, which have also restricted training. The formation of a Lithuanian–Polish–Ukrainian army brigade was originally envisaged by autumn 2011, but as of mid-2013 had yet to materialise. The air force provides a light transport capability while the naval focus is on mine countermeasures. Lithuania was a contributor to ISAF for eight years; its mission ended in August 2013.

ACTIVE 11,800 (Army 7,350 Navy 500 Air 950 Joint 2,050) Paramilitary 11,550

Conscript liability 12 months

RESERVE 6,700 (Army 6,700)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 3,750; 4,400 active reserves (total 8,150)

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Mechanised

1 mech bde (3 mech inf bn, 1 arty bn)

Light

3 mot inf bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 engr bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 trg regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (T) 126 M113A1

ARTY 48

TOWED 105mm 18 M101

MOR 120mm 30: 5 2B11; 10 M/41D; 15 M113 with Tampella

AT MSL

SP 10 M1025A2 HMMWV with Javelin

MANPATS Javelin

RCL 84mm Carl Gustav

ADSAMMANPAD Stinger

AEV 8 MT-LB

ARV 4 M113

   Reserves
   National Defence Voluntary Forces 4,400 active reservists
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

6 (territorial) def unit

Navy 500

LVA, EST and LTU established a joint naval unit, BALTRON, with bases at Liepaja, Riga, Ventpils (LVA), Tallinn (EST), Klaipeda (LTU)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 4

PCC 3 Zematis (DNK Flyvefisken) with 1 76mm gun

PB 1 Storm (NOR) with 1 76mm gun

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 4:

MHC 3: 1 Sūduvis (GER Lindau); 2 Skulvis (UK Hunt)

MCCS 1 Vidar (NOR)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 4

AAR 1 Sakiai

YAG 1 Lokys (DNK)

YGS 1

YTL 1 (SWE)

Air Force 950

Flying hours 120 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

AIR DEFENCE

1 AD bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TPT 5: Medium 3 C-27J Spartan; Light 2 L-410 Turbolet

TRG 1 L-39ZA Albatros

HELICOPTERSTPTMedium 8 Mi-8 Hip (tpt/SAR)

ADSAMMANPAD FIM-92A Stinger; RBS-70

Special Operation Force

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF gp (1 CT unit; 1 Jaeger bn, 1 cbt diver unit)

Joint Logistics Support Command 1,300

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bn

Joint Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) 800

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 trg regt

Other Units 600

FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 MP bn

Paramilitary 11,550

   Riflemen Union 7,550
 
   State Border Guard Service 4,000

Ministry of Internal Affairs

      Coast Guard 530
      EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPB 3: 1 Lokki (FIN); 1 KBV 041 (SWE); 1 KBV 101 (SWE)

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFT UCAC 2 Christina (Griffon 2000)

Cyber

A National Electronic Information Security (cyber-security) Strategy was approved by the government in 2011. Earlier, a Cyber Security Strategy for National Defence was adopted in 2009, and is currently being implemented. To help this process, the MoD established a cyber-security division under its Communication and Information System Service the same year. In 2013 the MoD adopted a renewed Cyber Security Strategy, which defines ways of strengthening cyber security in the National Defense System.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1992)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By parliament (Art. 67, 138, 142) According to legislation, the defence minister has the authority to establish the exact amount or size of contingent to be deployed, and the duration of the deployment, not exceeding the limits set out by the parliament.

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 240

UN • UNAMA 1 obs

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 2

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 1

FOREIGN FORCES

Belgium NATO Baltic Air Policing 4 F-16AM Fighting Falcon

Luxembourg

Luxembourg LUX
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 45.5bn 46.9bn
US$ 56.7bn 60.5bn
per capita US$ 107,206 112,135
Growth % 3.62 3.05
Inflation % 2.89 1.93
Def exp
US$
Def bdgt 207m 188m
US$ 267m 249m
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
Population 514,862
Foreign citizens: ε124,000
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 9.3% 3.2% 3.2% 3.2% 23.9% 6.4%
Female 8.7% 3.0% 3.1% 3.2% 23.8% 8.8%

Capabilities

Luxembourg maintains a small army, with no air or naval capacity. It continues to support EU anti-piracy operations by funding the Luxembourg Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance programme. This uses contractor-operated Merlin IIIC maritime patrol aircraft as part of the counter-piracy Operation Atalanta.

ACTIVE 900 (Army 900) Paramilitary 610

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 900

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

2 recce coy (1 to Eurocorps/BEL div, 1 to NATO pool of deployable forces)

Light

1 lt inf bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC PPV 48 Dingo II

ARTYMOR 81mm 6

AT MSLMANPATS 6 TOW

Paramilitary 610

   Gendarmerie 610
 

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1868)

Specific legislation: ‘Loi du 27 juillet 1992 relatif à la participation du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg à des opérations pour le maintien de la paix (OMP) dans le cadre d’organisations internationales’.

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By government after formal consultation of relevant parliamentary committees and the Council of State (Art. 1–2 of the 1992 law).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 10

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 1

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 1

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 22

Macedonia

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic FYROM
Macedonian Denar d 2012 2013 2014
GDP d 484bn 510bn
US$ 9.68bn 10.5bn
per capita US$ 4,683 5,050
Growth % 0.11 0.05
Inflation % 3.31 2.50
Def bdgt d 6.18bn
US$ 129m
FMA (US) US$ 3.6m 3.6m 3.6m
US$1=d 47.83 46.29
Population 2,087,171
Age 0 – 1 4 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 9.3% 3.7% 3.7% 3.9% 24.0% 5.2%
Female 8.6% 3.4% 3.5% 3.8% 23.9% 6.9%

Capabilities

Ambitious reform plans spelt out in the 2003 Defence Concept, and reiterated in the 2005 Defence White Paper, have so far only partly been realised, though the armed forces have been reorganised. In 2006, the services moved from a conscript-based to a professional structure. The 2003 Defence Concept called for armed forces to support territorial integrity, regional stability, peace-support missions and deployed operations. The country continues to aspire to NATO membership, having joined the NATO Membership Action Plan in 1999. The impasse with Greece over the state’s name is one element that hinders progress towards full NATO status. The armed forces have a small air arm consisting mainly of transport and armed support helicopters, but have no organic fixed-wing airlift. Although forces deployed to ISAF and the EU in Bosnia are mission-capable, only a small proportion of the remaining forces are likely operationally ready.

ACTIVE 8,000 (Joint 8,000)

RESERVE 4,850

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Joint Operational Command 8,000

   Army
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 (Special Purpose) SF regt (1 SF bn, 1 Ranger bn)

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 tk bn

Mechanised

1 mech inf bde

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 (mixed) arty regt

1 AD coy

1 engr bn

1 MP bn

1 NBC coy

1 sigs bn

   Logistic Support Command
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 engr bn (1 active coy)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

3 log bn

      Reserves
      FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

1 inf bde

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 31 T-72A

RECCE 51: 10 BRDM-2; 41 M1114 HMMWV

AIFV 11: 10 BMP-2; 1 BMP-2K

APC 200

APC (T) 47: 9 Leonidas; 28 M113A; 10 MT-LB

APC (W) 153: 57 BTR-70; 12 BTR-80; 84 TM-170 Hermelin

ARTY 126

TOWED 70: 105mm 14 M-56; 122mm 56 M-30 M-1938

MRL 17: 122mm 6 BM-21; 128mm 11

MOR 39: 120mm 39

AT MSL MANPATS 12 Milan

RCL 57mm; 82mm M60A

AD

SAM 8 9K35 Strela-10 (SA-13 Gopher)

MANPAD 5 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet)

Guns 40mm 36 L20

   Marine Wing

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 7

PCC 1 Matsilo

PB 6

AMPHIBIOUS • LC • LCM 1 EDIC

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 4:

YTB 1 Trozona

YTM 3

   Air Wing

Air Wg is directly under Joint Operational Cmd

   FORCES BY ROLE

TRANSPORT

1 (VIP) sqn with An-2 Colt

TRAINING

1 sqn with Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois)

1 sqn with Z-242

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-24K Hind G2; Mi-24V Hind E

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-8MTV Hip; Mi-17 Hip H

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TPT Light 1 An-2 Colt

TRG 5 Z-242

HELICOPTERS

ATK 4 Mi-24V Hind E (10: 2 Mi-24K Hind G2; 8 Mi-24V Hind E in store)

MRH 6: 4 Mi-8MTV Hip; 2 Mi-17 Hip H

TPT Light 2 Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois)

Paramilitary

   Police 7,600 (some 5,000 armed)

incl 2 SF units

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC BTR APC (W)/M-113A APC (T)

HELICOPTERS 3

MRH 1 Bell 412EP Twin Huey

TPT Light 2: 1 Bell 206B (AB-206B) Jet Ranger II; 1 Bell 212 (AB-212)

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment of armed forces:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1991)

Specific legislation: ‘Defence Law’ (2005)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) by the government if deployment is for humanitarian missions or military exercises; b) by the parliament if for peacekeeping operations (‘Defence Law’, Art. 41).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 158

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 11

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 1

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 17

Malta

Malta MLT
Maltese Lira ML 2012 2013 2014
GDP ML 6.97bn 7.28bn
US$ 8.69bn 9.26bn
per capita US$ 20,852 22,193
Growth % 0.82 1.31
Inflation % 3.23 2.37
Def exp a ML 39m
US$ 50m
Def bdgt a ML 39m 45m
US$ 50m 60m
US$1=ML 0.78 0.75
a Excludes military pensions
Population 411,277
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.8% 3.1% 3.5% 3.6% 24.1% 7.6%
Female 7.4% 2.9% 3.3% 3.3% 23.6% 9.6%

Capabilities

The armed forces consist of a limited number of army personnel supported by small naval and air units. Recently there have been efforts to improve maritime surveillance with the acquisition of King Air maritime patrol aircraft, while an AW139 is due to enter service in the search and rescue role. Malta continues to support the EU’s Operation Atalanta counter-piracy mission, and in 2013 provided a boarding team embarked on the Dutch amphibious ship HNLMS Johan de Witt.

ACTIVE 1,950 (Armed Forces 1,950)

RESERVE 180 (Emergency Volunteer Reserve Force 120 Individual Reserve 60)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Armed Forces of Malta 1,950

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

1 (1st) inf regt (3 inf coy, 1 AD/cbt spt coy)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 (3rd) cbt spt regt (1 cbt engr sqn, 1 EOD sqn, 1 maint sqn)

1 (4th) cbt spt regt (1 CIS coy, 1 sy coy (Revenue Security Corps))

Maritime Squadron

Organised into 5 divisions: offshore patrol; inshore patrol; rapid deployment and training; marine engineering and logistics.

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 8

PCC 1 Diciotti

PB 7: 4 Austal 21m; 2 Marine Protector; 1 Bremse (GER)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 2

AAR 2 Cantieri Vittoria

Air Wing

1 base party. 1 flt ops div; 1 maint div; 1 integrated log div; 1 rescue section

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TPT Light 4: 2 Beech 200 King Air (maritime patrol); 2 BN-2B Islander

TRG 3 Bulldog T MK1

HELICOPTERS

MRH 3 SA316B Alouette III

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1964)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: The government decides on a case-by-case basis on the deployment of Maltese military personnel abroad (Malta Armed Forces Act, Chapter 220 of the Laws of Malta).

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 1

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 4

FOREIGN FORCES

Italy 22; 2 Bell 212 (SAR) hel 22; 2 Bell 212 (SAR) hel

Montenegro

Montenegro MNE
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 3.45bn 3.58bn
US$ 4.28bn 4.57bn
per capita US$ 6,882 7,318
Growth % 0.03 1.23
Inflation % 3.65 2.71
Def bdgt a 40m 40m
US$ 52m 54m
FMA (US) US$ 1.2m 1.2m 1.2m
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Excludes military pensions
Population 653,474
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.4% 2.2% 3.2% 4.4% 27.1% 5.4%
Female 7.9% 2.7% 3.2% 3.7% 24.4% 8.3%

Capabilities

In the wake of its separation from Serbia in 2006, Montenegro shifted from a conscript to a professional armed services. Force and organisational changes are under way that will likely see a further reduction in numbers, mainly in the army. The country participates in NATO’s Membership Action Plan (MAP), with the aim of becoming a member of the Alliance, but its capability is limited to relatively undemanding internal security missions. Under the MAP, Montenegro has worked towards addressing sets of ‘partnership goals’, such as developing international defence-cooperation and training contacts. It is understood that a new Strategic Defence Review was under way in late 2013. Maintenance issues have affected operational availability of equipment.

ACTIVE 2,080 (Army 1,500 Navy 350 Air Force 230) Paramilitary 10,100

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 1,500

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bde

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 recce coy

Light

1 mot inf bde (1 SF coy, 2 inf regt (1 inf bn, 1 mtn bn), 1 arty bty, 1 cbt spt coy, 1 CBRN pl, 1 sig pl)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 engr coy

3 sigs pl

1 MP coy

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (W) 8 BOV-VP M-86

ARTY 149

TOWED 122mm 12 D-30

MRL 128mm 18 M63/M94 Plamen

MOR 119: 82mm 76; 120mm 43

AT

SP 8 BOV-1

MSLMANPATS 117: 71 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 19 9K113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel); 27 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral)

Navy 350

1 Naval Cmd HQ with 4 operational naval units (patrol boat; coastal surveillance; maritime detachment and SAR) with additional sigs, log and trg units with a separate Coast Guard element. Some listed units are in the process of decommissioning.

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 5

PSO 1 Kotor with 1 twin 76mm gun (1 further vessel in reserve)

PCFG 2 Rade Končar with 2 single lnchr with P-15 Termit (SS-N-2B Styx) AShM (missiles disarmed)

PB 2 Mirna (Type-140) (Police units)

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFT 5

LCU 5: 3 (Type-21); 2 (Type-22)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 3

AOTL 1 Drina; AET 1 Lubin; AXS 1 Jadran

Air Force 230

Golubovci (Podgorica) air base under army command.

FORCES BY ROLE

TRAINING

1 (mixed) sqn with G-4 Super Galeb; Utva-75 (none operational)

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with SA341/SA342L Gazelle

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT TRG (4 G-4 Super Galeb non-operational; 4 Utva-75 non-operational)

HELICOPTERS

MRH 7 SA341/SA342L Gazelle (8 more non-operational)

TPTMedium (1 Mi-8T awaiting museum storage)

Paramilitary ε10,100

   Montenegrin Ministry of Interior Personnel ε6,000
 
   Special Police Units ε4,100
 

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Constitution (2007)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: The Assembly, on the proposal of the Council for Defence and Security, decide on the use of Montenegrin armed forces in international forces (Article 82, item 8).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 27

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 2 obs

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 1

Multinational Organisations

Capabilities

The following represent shared capabilites held by contributors collectively rather than as part of national inventories.

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

NATO AEW&C Force

Based at Geilenkirchen (GER). 12 original participating countries (BEL, CAN, DNK, GER, GRC, ITA, NLD, NOR, PRT, TUR, USA) have been subsequently joined by 5 more (CZE, ESP, HUN, POL, ROM).

FORCES BY ROLE

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL

1 sqn with B-757 (trg); E-3A Sentry (NATO standard)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

AEW&C 17 E-3A Sentry (NATO standard)

TPTPAX 1 B-757 (trg)

Strategic Airlift Capability

Heavy Airlift Wing based at Papa airbase (HUN). 12 participating countries (BLG, EST, FIN, HUN, LTU, NLD, NOR, POL, ROM, SVN, SWE, USA)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TPTHeavy 3 C-17A Globemaster

Strategic Airlift Interim Solution

Intended to provide strategic airlift capacity pending the delivery of A400M aircraft by leasing An-124s. 14 participating countries (BEL, CAN, CZE, DNK, FIN, FRA, GER, HUN, LUX, NOR, POL, ROM, SVK, SVN, SWE, UK)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

TPTHeavy 2 An-124-100 (4 more available on 6-9 days notice)

Netherlands

Netherlands NLD
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 609bn 624bn
US$ 773bn 809bn
per capita US$ 46,142 48,091
Growth % -0.88 -0.53
Inflation % 2.82 2.82
Def exp 8.07bn
US$ 10.4bn
Def bdgt a 8.04bn 7.79bn 7.79bn
US$ 10.3bn 10.4bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions
Population 16,805,037
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 8.7% 3.0% 3.2% 3.1% 23.8% 7.6%
Female 8.3% 2.9% 3.1% 3.1% 23.7% 9.5%

Capabilities

The Netherlands is looking to meet broad security needs through its relationships with key allies, following the implementation of 2011 spending cuts and subsequent force reductions. Power projection and combat readiness have been affected by these reductions, while the organisational and personnel changes risk eroding morale. However, a late amendment to the defence budget has reduced the level of cuts and enabled the sustainment of key equipment. The intent remains to be able to field a brigade-size contribution on international operations and to provide battalion-level support for long-term stabilisation operations. The armed forces also maintain a commitment to the NATO rapid response force, including a mine-hunter, mechanised infantry and F-16s. The air force has taken delivery of two F-35A test aircraft, but these are currently in storage pending a decision on the Netherlands’ future involvement in the programme. Irrespective of recent challenges, the armed forces remain a motivated and professional force capable of participating in demanding joint operations in a NATO Alliance context.

ACTIVE 37,400 (Army 20,850; Navy 8,500; Air 8,050) Military Constabulary 5,900

RESERVE 3,200 (Army 2,700; Navy 80; Air 420) Military Constabulary 80

Reserve liability to age 35 for soldiers/sailors, 40 for NCOs, 45 for officers

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 20,850

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

elm 1 (GER/NLD) Corps HQ

SPECIAL FORCES

5 SF coy (4 land, 1 maritime)

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISTAR bn (2 armd recce sqn, 1 EW coy, 1 arty bty, 1 UAV bty)

Mechanised

2 (13th & 43rd) mech bde (1 armd recce sqn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 SP arty bn (2 bty), 1 engr bn, 1 maint coy, 1 medical coy)

Air Manoeuvre

1 (11th) air mob bde (3 air mob inf bn, 1 mor coy, 1 AD coy, 1 engr coy, 1 med coy, 1 supply coy, 1 maint coy)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 AD comd (3 AD bty)

1 CIMIC bn

1 engr bn

48 EOD teams

1 (CIS) sigs bn

1 CBRN coy

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 med bn

5 fd hospital

3 maint coy

2 tpt bn

   Reserves 2,700 reservists
   National Command

Cadre bde and corps tps completed by call-up of reservists (incl Territorial Comd)

   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

3 inf bn (could be mob for territorial def)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

RECCE 305: 296 Fennek; 9 Fuchs Tpz-1 CBRN recce

AIFV 184 CV9035N

APC 177

APC (W) 92: 8 Boxer (driver trg); 14 M577A1; 70 XA-188

PPV 85 Bushmaster IMV

ARTY 61:

SP 155mm 18 PzH 2000

MOR 43: 81mm 27 L16/M1 120mm 16 Brandt

AT

MSL

SP 40 Fennek MRAT

MANPATS 297 Spike-MR (Gil)

RL 1,381 Pzf

AD SAM

SP 36: 18 Fennek with FIM-92A Stinger; 18 MB with FIM-92A Stinger

MANPAD 18 FIM-92A Stinger

RADARLAND 6+: 6 AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder (arty, mor); WALS; Squire

AEV 35+: 10 Kodiak; 20 Leopard 1; YPR-806 A1

ARV 77+: 25 Büffel; 52 Leopard 1; YPR-809

VLB 8 Leopard 1

MW Bozena

Navy 8,500 (incl Marines)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 4:

4 Walrus with 4 single 533mm TT with Mk48 Sea Arrow HWT (equipped for UGM-84C Harpoon AShM, but none embarked)

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 6

DESTROYERSDDGHM 4:

4 Zeven Provinciën with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84F Harpoon AShM, 1 40-cell Mk41 VLS with SM-2MR/ESSM SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Goalkeeper CIWS, 1 127mm gun, (capacity 1 NH90 hel)

FRIGATESFFGHM 2:

2 Karel Doorman with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 Mk48 VLS with RIM-7P Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 NH90 hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPSOH 3 Holland with 1 76mm gun (capacity 1 NH90 hel) (1 further vessel undergoing trials)

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURESMHO 6 Alkmaar (tripartite)

AMPHIBIOUS

PRINCIPAL AMPHIBIOUS SHIPSLPD 2:

1 Rotterdam with 2 Goalkeeper CIWS, (capacity 4 NH90/AS532 Cougar hel; either 6 LCVP or 2 LCU and 3 LCVP; either 170 APC or 33 MBT; 538 troops)

1 Johan de Witt with 2 Goalkeeper CIWS, (capacity 6 NH90 hel or 4 AS532 Cougar hel; either 6 LCVP or 2 LCU and 3 LCVP; either 170 APC or 33 MBT; 700 troops)

LANDING CRAFT 17:

LCU 5 Mk9

LCVP 12 Mk5

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 32

AGS 2 Snellius

AK 1 Pelikaan

AORH 1 Amsterdam (capacity 2 NH90 hel) with 1 Goalkeeper CIWS

AOT 1 Patria

ASL 1 Mercuur

AXL 2: 1 Thetis (diving trg); 1 Van Kingsbergen

AXS 1 Urania

YDT 5: 4 Cerberus; 1 Soemba

YFL 6

YTM 5 Linge

YTL 7 Breezand

   Marines 2,654
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

2 mne bn (1 integrated with UK mne bde to form UK/NLD Amphibious Landing Force)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 amph cbt spt bn (some SF units, 1 recce coy, 1 AD pl, 2 amph beach units, 1 (Maritime Joint Effect) bty)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 spt bn (2 spt units, 1 sea-based spt gp, 2 medical facility)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (T) 151: 87 Bv-206D; 73 BvS-10 Viking

ARTYMOR 18: 81mm 12 L16/M1; 120mm 6 Brandt

ATMSLMANPATS 24 MRAT Gil

RL 84mm 144 Pantserfaust III Dynarange 2000

ADSAMMANPAD 4 FIM-92A Stinger

ARV 5 BvS-10

MED 4 BvS-10

Air Force 8,050

Flying hours 180 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

4 sqn with F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE/SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with NH90 NFH

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with Bell 412SP (AB-412SP Griffin)

TANKER/TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130H/C-130H-30 Hercules; DC-10/KDC-10; Gulfstream IV

TRAINING

1 sqn with PC-7 Turbo Trainer

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AH-64D Apache

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AS532U2 Cougar II

1 sqn with CH-47D/F Chinook

AIR DEFENCE

4 sqn (total: 7 AD Team. 4 AD bty with MIM-104 Patriot (TMD capable))

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 74 combat capable

FTR 72 F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

FGA 2 F-35A Lightning II (in test)

TKR 2 KDC-10

TPT 6: Medium 4: 2 C-130H Hercules; 2 C-130H-30 Hercules; PAX 2: 1 DC-10; 1 Gulfstream IV

TRG 13 PC-7 Turbo Trainer

HELICOPTERS

ATK 29 AH-64D Apache

ASW 8 NH90 NFH

MRH 7: 3 Bell 412 (AB-412SP Griffin); 4 SA316 Alouette III

TPT 25: Heavy 17: 11 CH-47D Chinook; 6 CH-47F Chinook; Medium 8 AS532U2 Cougar II

ADSAM

TOWED 20 MIM-104 Patriot (TMD Capable/PAC-3 msl)

MANPAD FIM-92A Stinger

MSL

AAM IR AIM-9L/M/N ARH AIM-120B AMRAAM

ASM AGM-114K Hellfire; AGM-65D/G Maverick

BOMBS

Conventional Mk 82; Mk 84

Laser-guided GBU-10/GBU-12 Paveway II; GBU-24 Paveway III (all supported by LANTIRN)

Paramilitary

   Royal Military Constabulary 5,900

Subordinate to the Ministry of Defence, but performs most of its work under the authority of other ministries.

   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

6 paramilitary district (total: 60 paramilitary ‘bde’)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIFV 24 YPR-765

Cyber

In early 2011, the Dutch defence minister indicated that cyber defence would attract some of the Netherlands’ declining budget and, between 2011–2015, around €30 million plus staff would be allocated, with full capability by 2016. In June 2012, the defence ministry launched a Defence Cyber Strategy to direct military cyber efforts. Among other elements, the strategy is intended to strengthen cyber defence, and ‘develop the military capability to conduct cyber operations (offensive element)’. While a separate cyber service will not be established by the MoD, ‘relevant cyber capabilities will be incorporated within the Defence Cyber Command, which will come under the […] management of the […] army’. A broader National Cyber Security Strategy was published in 2011. A National Security Centre was launched in January 2012. The Netherlands has a national CERT, is involved in informal CERT communities, and is a member of the European Government CERTs group (EGC).

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1815)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the government (Art. 98)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 400

UN • UNAMA 1

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 3

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 3

Gulf of Aden & Somali Basin

NATO Operation Ocean Shield 1 LPD

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 12 obs

North Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 1: 1 MHO

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 7

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 7; 2 obs

Syria/Israel

UN • UNDOF 2

Turkey

NATO Active Fence: 2 AD bty with MIM-104 Patriot

FOREIGN FORCES

United Kingdom Air Force 90

United States US European Command: 400

Norway

Norway NOR
Norwegian Kroner kr 2012 2013 2014
GDP kr 3.04tr 3.16tr
US$ 501bn 537bn
per capita US$ 99,462 105,478
Growth % 2.99 2.46
Inflation % 0.71 1.50
Def exp kr 41.6bn
US$ 7.14bn
Def bdgt kr 40.6bn 42.5bn
US$ 6.97bn 7.52bn
US$1=kr 5.82 5.65
Population 4,722,701
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 8.9% 3.4% 3.4% 3.0% 23.4% 7.4%
Female 8.6% 3.3% 3.3% 3.0% 23.0% 9.4%

Capabilities

Norway maintains small but capable armed forces focused largely on territorial defence, particularly in the High North. This ensures that the armed forces possess cold-weather warfare skills. Norway has been less constrained by the spending difficulties that in recent years have beset other European states and has been able to invest in acquisitions, including destroyers and equipment necessary to sustain its presence in the Arctic region amid the retreat of seasonal sea-ice. However, these have also added a new element to the country’s maritime capabilities. During the Cold War, Norway relied on small attack craft and submarines to pursue a policy of sea-denial; now, it is able to deploy further from its coast with more muscular surface platforms. The shift of the National Joint Headquarters from Jåttå to Bodø in northern Norway in August 2009 also reflected the importance of the Arctic to Oslo. Norway places importance on its alliances, particularly with European states and NATO. Given the small size of the armed forces, Norway relies on conscription for current personnel levels and reserves for crisis deployment. Conscripts comprise approximately one-third of the armed forces at any one point, affecting the level of training and readiness. Whilst Norway has made significant contributions to ISAF, this has depressed land-force readiness for other tasks.

ACTIVE 25,800 (Army 9,350, Navy 4,500, Air 3,950, Central Support 7,500, Home Guard 500)

Conscript liability 18 months maximum. Conscripts first serve 12 months from 19–21, and then up to 4–5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55 or 60 depending on rank and function. Active numbers include conscripts on initial service.

RESERVE 45,940 (Army 270, Navy 320, Central Support 350, Home Guard 45,000)

Readiness varies from a few hours to several days  

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 4,500; 4,850 conscript (total 9,350)

The mechanised brigade – Brigade North – trains new personnel of all categories and provides units for international operations. At any time around one-third of the brigade will be trained and ready to conduct operations. The brigade includes one high-readiness mechanised battalion (Telemark Battalion) with combat support and combat service support units on high readiness.

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 (Border Guard) lt bn (3 coy (HQ/garrison, border control & trg))

Mechanised

1 mech inf bde (1 ISTAR bn, 2 mech inf bn, 1 lt inf bn, 1 arty bn, 1 engr bn, 1 MP coy, 1 CIS bn, 1 spt bn, 1 med bn)

Light

1 bn (His Majesty The King’s Guards)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 52 Leopard 2A4

RECCE Fuchs CBRN recce

AIFV 104 CV9030N

APC 410

APC (T) 315 M113 (incl variants)

APC (W) 75 XA-186 Sisu/XA-200 Sisu

PPV 20 Dingo II

ARTY 204

SP 155mm 18 M109A3GN

MOR 186:

SP 81mm 36: 24 M106A1; 12 M125A2

81mm 150 L-16

AT

MANPATS Javelin

RCL 84mm Carl Gustav

RADAR LAND 12 ARTHUR

AEV 22 Alvis

ARV 9+: 3 M88A1; M578; 6 Leopard 1

VLB 35: 26 Leguan; 9 Leopard 1

MW 9 910 MCV-2

Navy 2,450; 2,050 conscripts (total 4,500)

Joint Command – Norwegian National Joint Headquarters. The Royal Norwegian Navy is organised into four elements under the command of the chief of staff of the Navy; the naval units ‘Kysteskadren’, the schools ‘Sjoforsvarets Skoler’, the naval bases and the coast guard ‘Kystvakten’.

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISTAR coy (Coastal Rangers)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 EOD pl

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 6 Ula with 8 single 533mm TT with A3 Seal DM2 HWT

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 5

DESTROYERSDDGHM 5 Fridtjof Nansen with 2 quad lnchr with NSM AShM, 1 8-cell Mk41 VLS with ESSM SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Sting Ray LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 NH90 hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPCFGM 6 Skjold with 8 single lnchr with NSM AShM, 1 twin lnchr with Mistral SAM, 1 76mm gun

MINE WARFARE MINE COUNTERMEASURES 6:

MSC 3 Alta

MHC 3 Oksoy

AMPHIBIOUSLANDING CRAFTLCP 16 S90N

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 20

AGI 1 Marjata with 1 hel landing platform

AGDS 1 Tyr

AGS 6: 1 HU Sverdrup II; 4 Oljevern; 1 Geofjord

ATS 1 Valkyrien

AXL 5: 2 Hessa; 2 Kvarnen; 1 Reine

YAC 1 Norge

YDT 5

   Coast Guard

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 15

PSO 8: 3 Barentshav; 1 Svalbard with 1 57mm gun, 1 hel landing platform; 1 Harstad; 3 Nordkapp with 1 57mm gun, 1 hel landing platform

PCO 7: 1 Aalesund; 5 Nornen; 1 Reine

Air Force 2,800; 1150 conscript (total 3,950)

Joint Command – Norwegian National HQ

Flying hours 180 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

3 sqn with F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

MARITIME PATROL

1 sqn with P-3C Orion; P-3N Orion (pilot trg)

ELECTRONIC WARFARE

1 sqn with Falcon 20C (EW, Flight Inspection Service)

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with Sea King Mk43B

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130J-30 Hercules

TRAINING

1 sqn with MFI-15 SAAB Safari

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with Bell 412SP Twin Huey

1 sqn with Lynx Mk86

1 sqn with NH90 (forming)

AIR DEFENCE

1 bty(+) with NASAMS II

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 63 combat capable

FTR 57: 47 F-16AM Fighting Falcon; 10 F-16BM Fighting Falcon

ASW 6: 4 P-3C Orion; 2 P-3N Orion (pilot trg)

EW 3 Falcon 20C

TPTMedium 4 C-130J-30 Hercules

TRG 16 MFI-15 Safari

HELICOPTERS

ASW 8: 5 Lynx Mk86 ; 3 NH90 NFH (delivery schedule of all 14 revised to an FOC of 2017)

SAR 12 Sea King Mk43B

MRH 18: 6 Bell 412HP; 12 Bell 412SP

AD

SAMTOWED NASAMS II

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L Sidewinder; IIR IRIS-T; ARH AIM-120B AMRAAM

BOMBS

Laser-guided: EGBU-12 Paveway II

INS/GPS guided: JDAM

Special Operations Command (NORSOCOM)

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 (army) SF comd (2 SF gp)

1 (navy SF comd (1 SF gp)

Central Support, Administration and Command 6,500; 1,000 conscripts (total 6,500)

Central Support, Administration and Command includes military personnel in all joint elements and they are responsible for logistics and CIS in support of all forces in Norway and abroad.

Home Guard 550 (45,000 reserves)

The Home Guard is a separate organisation, but closely cooperates with all services. The Home Guard can be mobilised on very short notice for local security operations.

   Land Home Guard 41,150 with reserves

11 Home Guard Districts with mobile Rapid Reaction Forces (3,000 troops in total) as well as reinforcements and follow-on forces (38,150 troops in total).

   Naval Home Guard 1,900 with reserves

Consisting of Rapid Reaction Forces (500 troops), and 17 ‘Naval Home Guard Areas’. A number of civilian vessels can be requisitioned as required.

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS PB 11: 4 Harek; 2 Gyda; 5 Alusafe 1290

   Air Home Guard 1,450 with reserves

Provides force protection and security detachments for air bases.

Cyber

The 2012 Cyber Security Strategy for Norway contains cross-governmental guidelines for cyber defence. NorCERT, part of the National Security Authority, is responsible for information exchange and cooperation at the operational level. Norwegian Armed Forces Cyber Defence supports the armed forces with establishing, operating and protecting networks. It is responsible for defending military networks against cyber attack.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1814)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By royal prerogative exercised by the government (Art. 25, 26).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 111

UN • UNAMA 2 obs

Egypt

MFO 3

Gulf of Aden & Somali Basin

NATO Operation Ocean Shield 1 FFGHM

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 13 obs

North Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 1: 1 MSC

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 4

OSCE • Serbia 2

UN • UNMIK 1

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 12; 4 obs

FOREIGN FORCES

United States US European Command: 1 (APS) 155mm SP Arty bn eqpt set

Poland

Poland POL
Polish Zloty z 2012 2013 2014
GDP z 1.63tr 1.7tr
US$ 488bn 513bn
per capita US$ 12,538 13,075
Growth % 2.05 1.31
Inflation % 3.68 1.85
Def bdgt a z 27.8bn 31.2bn 31.7bn
US$ 8.54bn 9.83bn
FMA (US) US$ 24m 24m 14m
US$1=z 3.26 3.17
a Excludes military pensions
Population 38,383,809
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.5% 2.9% 3.4% 4.1% 25.0% 5.6%
Female 7.1% 2.7% 3.3% 4.0% 25.6% 8.9%

Capabilities

Since ending conscription in 2009, Poland has restructured its armed forces, with the focus on smaller, more capable services. The 2011 Strategic Defence Review set out the general aims and development of the military over the next 25 years. NATO membership is a key pillar of Polish defence policy; it is a member of NATO’s Multinational Corps Northeast, and is a regular participant in NATO and EU exercises and operations. Soviet-era equipment is being phased out as part of a broad re-equipment programme, though some projects have already fallen victim to funding pressures. Within the army, the emphasis is on expanding deployable forces, with increased helicopter support. Mobility is aided by involvement in the Strategic Airlift Capability’s C-17 unit, with the air force also operating its own tactical transport aircraft. The navy is presently structured around a fleet of frigates and corvettes, with longer-term plans looking to a multi-role corvette.

ACTIVE 99,300 (Army 48,200, Navy 7,700, Air 16,600, Special Forces 3,000, Joint 23,800) Paramilitary 73,400

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Land Forces Command 48,200

Land Forces Command controls airmobile bdes and their avn. Transition to lighter forces is continuing but is hampered by lack of funds.

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

1 (2nd) mech corps HQ

elm 1 (MNC NE) corps HQ

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

3 recce regt

Armoured

1 (11th) armd cav div (2 armd bde, 1 mech bde)

Mechanised

1 (12th) div (2 mech bde, 1 (coastal) mech bde)

1 (16th) div (2 armd bde, 2 mech bde)

1 (21st) mech bde (1 armd bn, 3 mech bn, 1 arty bn, 1 AD bn, 1 engr bn)

Air Manoeuvre

1 (6th) air aslt bde (3 air aslt bn)

1 (25th) air cav bde (3 air cav bn, 2 tpt hel bn, 1 (casevac) med unit)

Aviation

1 (1st) avn bde (2 atk hel sqn with Mi-24D/V Hind D/E, 1 CSAR sqn with Mi-24V Hind E; PZL W-3PL Gluszec; 2 ISR hel sqn with Mi-2URP; 2 hel sqn with Mi-2)

COMBAT SUPPORT

3 arty regt

2 engr regt

1 ptn br regt

2 chem regt

3 AD regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 893: 128 Leopard 2A4; 232 PT-91 Twardy; 533 T-72/T-72M1D/T-72M1

RECCE 366: 237 BRDM-2; 37 BWR; 92 WD R-5

AIFV 1,867: 1,297 BMP-1; 570 Rosomak

APC PPV 70: 40 Cougar (on loan from US); 30 Maxxpro

ARTY 783

SP 401: 122mm 290 2S1; 152mm 111 M-77 Dana

MRL 122mm 180: 75 BM-21; 30 RM-70; 75 WR-40 Langusta

MOR 202: 98mm 98 M-98; 120mm 104 M120

ATMSL MANPATS 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); Spike-LR

AD

SAM

SP 64 9K33 Osa-AK (SA-8 Gecko)

MANPAD 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail); GROM

GUNS 352

SP 23mm 28: 8 ZSU-23-4; 20 ZSU-23-4MP Biala

TOWED 23mm 324; 252 ZU-23-2; 72 ZUR-23-2KG/PG

RADARLAND 3 LIWIEC (veh, arty)

HELICOPTERS

ATK 28 Mi-24D/V Hind D/E

MRH 64: 7 Mi-8MT Hip; 4 Mi-17 Hip H; 2 Mi-17AE Hip (aeromedical); 5 Mi-17-1V Hip; 18 PZL Mi-2URP Hoplite; 24 PZL W-3W/WA Sokol; 4 PZL W-3PL Gluszec (CSAR)

TPT 41: Medium 14 Mi-8T Hip; Light 27: 25 PZL Mi-2 Hoplite; 2 PZL W-3AE Sokol (aeromedical)

AEV IWT; MT-LB

ARV 65+: 10 Leopard 1; 15 MT-LB; TRI; WPT-TOPAS; 40 WZT-3

VLB 52: 4 Biber; 48 BLG67M2

MW 18: 14 Bozena; 4 Kalina SUM

Navy 7,700

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICAL 5:

SSK 5:

4 Sokol (NOR Type-207) with 8 single 533mm TT

1 Orzel (FSU Kilo) with 6 single 533mm TT each with T-53/T-65 HWT

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 2

FRIGATESFFGHM 2 Pulaski (US Oliver Hazard Perry) with 1 Mk13 GMLS with RGM-84D/F Harpoon AShM/SM-1MR SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT with MU90 LWT, 1 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 SH-2G Super Seasprite ASW hel) (1 vessel used as training ship)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 6

CORVETTES FSM 1 Kaszub with 2 quad lnchr with 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM, 2 twin 533mm ASTT with SET-53 HWT, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2, 1 76mm gun

PCFGM 5:

3 Orkan (GDR Sassnitz) with 1 quad lnchr with RBS-15 Mk3 AShM, 1 quad lnchr (manual aiming) with Strela-2 (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM, 1 AK630 CIWS, 1 76mm gun

2 Tarantul with 2 twin lnchr with P-21/22 Termit-M (SS-N-2C/D Styx) AShM, 1 quad lnchr (manual aiming) with 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM, 2 AK630 CIWS, 1 76mm gun

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 21:

MCCS 1 Project 890

MHI 4 Mamry

MHO 3 Krogulec

MSI 13 Goplo

AMPHIBIOUS 8

LANDING SHIPSLSM 5 Lublin (capacity 9 tanks; 135 troops)

LANDING CRAFTLCU 3 Deba (capacity 50 troops)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 38

AGI 2 Moma

AGS 8: 2 Heweliusz; 6 (coastal)

AORL 1 Baltyk

AOL 1 Moskit

ARS 4: 2 Piast; 2 Zbyszko

ATF 2

AX 1 Wodnik with 1 twin AK630 CIWS

AXS 1 Iskra

YDG 2 Mrowka

YDT 3

YFB 7

YPT 1 Kormoran

YTM 5

   Naval Aviation 1,300
   FORCES BY ROLE

ANTI SUBMARINE WARFARE/SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with MI-14PL Haze A; MI-14PS Haze C

1 sqn with PZL W-3RM Anakonda; SH-2G Super Seasprite

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-28B1R; An-28E

1 sqn with An-28TD; Mi-17 Hip H; PZL Mi-2 Hoplite; PZL W-3RM; PZL W-3T

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

MP 10: 8 An-28B1R Bryza; 2 An-28E Bryza (ecological monitoring)

TPTLight 4 An-28TD Bryza

HELICOPTERS

ASW 12: 8 Mi-14PL Haze; 4 SH-2G Super Seasprite

MRH 2 Mi-17 Hip H

SAR 9: 2 Mi-14PS Haze C; 7 PZL W-3RM Anakonda

TPT 7: Medium 2 PZL W-3T Sokol; Light 5 PZL Mi-2 Hoplite

Air Force 16,600

Flying hours 160 to 200 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

2 sqn with MiG-29A/UB Fulcrum

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

3 sqn with F-16C/D Block 52+ Fighting Falcon

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK/ISR

2 sqn with Su-22M-4 Fitter

SEARCH AND RESCUE

1 sqn with Mi-2; PZL W-3 Sokol

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130E; PZL M-28 Bryza

1 sqn with C-295M; PZL M-28 Bryza

1 VIP sqn with PZL M-28 Bryza

TRAINING

1 sqn with PZL-130 Orlik

1 sqn with TS-11 Iskra

1 hel sqn with SW-4 Puszczyk

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 (Spec Ops) sqn with Mi-17 Hip H

1 (VIP) sqn with Mi-8; W-3WA Sokol

AIR DEFENCE

1 bde with S-125 Neva SC (SA-3 Goa); S-200C Vega (SA-5 Gammon)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 106 combat capable

FTR 32: 26 MiG-29A Fulcrum; 6 MiG-29UB Fulcrum

FGA 74: 36 F-16C Block 52+ Fighting Falcon; 12 F-16D Block 52+ Fighting Falcon; 26 Su-22M-4 Fitter

TPT 44: Medium 5 C-130E Hercules; Light 39: 16 C-295M; 23 M-28 Bryza TD

TRG 60: 28 PZL-130 Orlik; 32 TS-11 Iskra

HELICOPTERS

MRH 4 Mi-17 Hip H

TPT 72: Medium 32: 9 Mi-8 Hip; 20 PZL W-3 Sokol; 3 PZL W-3WA Sokol (VIP); Light 40: 16 PZL Mi-2 Hoplite; 24 SW-4 Puszczyk (trg)

ADSAM

SP 17 S-125 Neva SC (SA-3 Goa)

STATIC 1 S-200C Vega (SA-5 Gammon)

MSL

AAM • IR R-60 (AA-8 Aphid); R-73 (AA-11 Archer); AIM-9 Sidewinder; R-27T (AA-10B Alamo); ARH AIM-120C AMRAAM

ASM AGM-65J/G Maverick; Kh-25 (AS-10 Karen); Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge)

Special Forces 3,000

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

3 SF units (GROM, FORMOZA & cdo)

COMBAT SUPPORT/

1 cbt spt unit (AGAT)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 spt unit (NIL)

Paramilitary 73,400

   Border Guards 14,300

Ministry of Interior

      Maritime Border Guard 3,700

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 18

PCC 2 Kaper

PBF 6: 2 Straznik; 4 IC16M

PB 10: 2 Wisloka; 2 Baltic 24; 6 others

AMPHIBIOUSLANDING CRAFTLCAC 2 Griffon 2000TDX

   Prevention Units (Police) 59,100 Anti-terrorist Operations Bureau n.k.

Ministry of Interior

Cyber

Poland has both national and government CERTs and is involved in informal CERT communities. A national cyber strategy is in the process of being drafted and Poland is an active participant in international cyber exercises.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1997); Act on Principles of Use or External Deployment of the Polish Armed Forces (17/12/1998)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) By president on request of prime minister in cases of direct threat (Art. 136);

b) in general, specified by ratified international agreement or statute (both must be passed by parliament, Art. 117)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 1,177; 1 air cav bde (1 inf BG); 5 Mi-24 Hind; 4 Mi-17 Hip

UN • UNAMA 1 obs

Armenia/Azerbaijan

OSCE • Minsk Conference 1

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 34

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 2

Côte D’Ivoire

UN • UNOCI 2 obs

Democratic Republic of the Congo

UN • MONUSCO 1 obs

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 1 obs

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 20

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

North Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 1: 1 MCCS

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 228; 1 inf coy

OSCE • Kosovo 4

UN • UNMIK 1 obs

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 2 obs

Western Sahara

UN • MINURSO 1 obs

FOREIGN FORCES

Germany 67 (elm Corps HQ (multinational))

Portugal

Portugal PRT
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 164bn 167bn
US$ 213bn 218bn
per capita US$ 20,179 20,689
Growth % -3.17 -2.32
Inflation % 2.78 0.70
Def bdgt 2.05bn 2.09bn 1.94bn
US$ 2.64bn 2.77bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
Population 10,799,270
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 8.3% 2.9% 3.1% 3.3% 23.5% 7.5%
Female 7.7% 2.6% 2.8% 3.0% 24.4% 10.9%

Capabilities

Homeland defence, supporting NATO Article Five and UN-, EU- and NATO-led operations, along with maritime security, are core roles for the country’s armed forces. As with several southern European states, Portugal has been badly affected by Europe’s economic crisis. This is apparent partly in the number of procurement projects that have been cut or shelved. Armoured vehicle and rotary-wing projects have all been hit. An offshore patrol vessel programme was shelved after the delivery of the first of its class. The aim remains to be able to deploy a battalion-size force in a high-intensity conflict as part of NATO operations, while also being able to support similar-sized peace support or humanitarian missions. A brigade-level deployment could be sustained, but only for a limited period. The pressures on the armed forces have likely had a negative impact on morale, while the cuts are also hitting readiness.

ACTIVE 42,600 (Army 25,700 Navy 9,700 Air 7,200) Paramilitary 47,700

RESERVE 211,950 (Army 210,000 Navy 1,250, Air Force 700)

Reserve obligation to age 35

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 25,700

5 territorial comd (2 mil region, 1 mil district, 2 mil zone)

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF unit

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISTAR bn

Mechanised

1 mech bde (1 cav tp, 1 tk regt, 2 mech inf bn, 1 arty bn. 1 AD bty, 1 engr coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 spt bn)

1 (intervention) bde (1 cav tp, 1 recce regt, 2 mech inf bn, 1 arty bn, 1 AD bty, 1 engr coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 spt bn)

Air Manoeuvre

1 (rapid reaction) bde (1 cav tp, 1 cdo bn, 2 para bn, 1 arty bn, 1 AD bty, 1 engr coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 spt bn)

Other

1 (Madeira) inf gp (2 inf bn, 1 AD bty)

1 (Azores) inf gp (1 inf bn, 1 AD bty)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 STA bty

1 AD bn

1 engr bn

1 EOD unit

1 ptn br coy

1 EW coy

2 MP coy

1 CBRN coy

1 psyops unit

1 CIMIC coy (joint)

1 sigs bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 construction coy

1 maint coy

1 log coy

1 tpt coy

1 med unit

   Reserves 210,000
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

3 (territorial) def bde (on mobilisation)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 113: 37 Leopard 2A6; 72 M60A3; 4 M48A5

RECCE 46: 15 V-150 Chaimite; 31 ULTRAV M-11

APC 458

APC (T) 261: 180 M113A1; 34 M113A2; 47 M577A2

APC (W) 197: 31 V-200 Chaimite; 166 Pandur II (all variants)

ARTY 360

SP 155mm 23: 6 M109A2; 17 M109A5

TOWED 33: 105mm 33: 19 L-119; 9 M101; 5 M-56

COASTAL 150mm 1

MOR 303: 81mm 190 (incl 21 SP); 107mm 53 M30 (incl 20 SP); 120mm 60 Tampella

AT

MSL

SP 28: 18 M113 with TOW; 4 M901 with TOW; 6 ULTRAV-11 with Milan

MANPATS Milan; Spike LR; Spike MR; TOW

RCL 182: 106mm 58 M40; 84mm 89 Carl Gustav; 90mm 35

AD

SAMMANPAD 58: 32 Chaparral; 26 FIM-92A Stinger

AEV M728

ARV 6 M88A1, 7 Pandur

VLB M48

Navy 9,700 (incl 1,550 Marines)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 2 Tridente (GER Type-209) with 8 533mm TT

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 5

FRIGATESFFGHM 5:

3 Vasco Da Gama with 2 Mk141 quad lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk 29 GMLS with RIM-7M Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 1 100mm gun, (capacity 2 Lynx Mk95 (Super Lynx) hel)

2 Bartolomeu Dias (ex-NLD Karel Doorman) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 Mk48 VLS with RIM-7M Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 Mk32 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Goalkeeper CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity: 1 Lynx Mk95 (Super Lynx) hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 24

CORVETTES FS 7:

3 Baptista de Andrade with 1 100mm gun, 1 hel landing platform

4 Joao Coutinho with 1 twin 76mm gun, 1 hel landing platform

PSO 2 Viana do Castelo with 1 hel landing platform

PCC 3 Cacine

PBR 12: 2 Albatroz; 5 Argos; 4 Centauro; 1 Rio Minho

AMPHIBIOUSLANDING CRAFTLCU 1 Bombarda

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 13

ABU 2: 1 Schultz Xavier; 1 Guia

AGS 4: 2 D Carlos I (US Stalwart); 2 Andromeda

AORL 1 Bérrio (ex UK Rover) with 1 hel landing platform (for medium hel)

AXS 3: 1 Sagres; 1 Creoula; 1 Polar

YGS 3

   Marines 1,550
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF det

MANOEUVRE

Light

2 lt inf bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 mor coy
1 MP det

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

ARTYMOR 30 120mm

   Naval Aviation

HELICOPTERSASW 5 Lynx Mk95 (Super Lynx)

Air Force 7,200

Flying hours 180 hrs/year on F-16 Fighting Falcon

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

2 sqn with F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon

MARITIME PATROL

1 sqn with P-3C Orion

ISR/TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-295M

COMBAT SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with with AW101 Merlin

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130H/C-130H-30 Hercules

1 sqn with Falcon 50

TRAINING

1 sqn with Alpha Jet*

1 sqn with SA316 Alouette III

1 sqn with TB-30 Epsilon

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 42 combat capable

FTR 30: 27 F-16AM Fighting Falcon; 3 F-16BM Fighting Falcon

ASW 5 P-3C Orion

ISR: 7: 5 C-295M (maritime surveillance), 2 C-295M (photo recce)

TPT 14: Medium 6: 3 C-130H Hercules; 3 C-130H-30 Hercules (tpt/SAR); Light 5 C-295M; PAX 3 Falcon 50 (tpt/VIP)

TRG 23: 7 Alpha Jet*; 16 TB-30 Epsilon

HELICOPTERS

MRH 12 SA316 Alouette III (trg, utl)

TPT Medium 12 AW101 Merlin (6 SAR, 4 CSAR, 2 fishery protection)

MSL

AAM • IR AIM-9L/I Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

ASM AGM-65A Maverick

AShM AGM-84A Harpoon

BOMBS

Enhanced Paveway II; GBU-49; GBU-31 JDAM

Paramilitary 47,700

   National Republican Guard 26,100

APC (W): some Commando Mk III (Bravia)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS PB 16

PBF 12

PB 4

HELICOPTERSMRH 7 SA315 Lama

   Public Security Police 21,600
 

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1976) (revised in 2005)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By government

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 165

UN • UNAMA 1 obs

Bosnia-Herzegovina

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 2

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 173; 1 AB coy (KTM)

OSCE • Kosovo 1

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 5

FOREIGN FORCES

United States US European Command: 700; 1 spt facility at Lajes

Romania

Romania ROM
New Lei 2012 2013 2014
GDP lei 626bn 662bn
US$ 169bn 187bn
per capita US$ 7,935 8,775
Growth % 0.33 1.60
Inflation % 3.34 4.62
Def bdgt a lei 7.67bn 8.28bn
US$ 2.21bn 2.47bn
FMA (US) US$ 14m 14m 8m
US$1=lei 3.47 3.35
a Includes military pensions
Population 21,790,479
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.5% 2.7% 3.3% 3.9% 25.1% 6.1%
Female 7.1% 2.6% 3.2% 3.8% 25.7% 9.0%

Capabilities

NATO membership is at the heart of Romania’s defence posture, and the country has moved from a conscript to a professional military as it attempts to restructure its armed forces to be able to contribute to NATO and EU missions. Since 2008, however, modernisation efforts have been hampered by funding difficulties. The army has been restructured to support deployed operations, with Romanian contingents joining NATO, EU and UN missions. An ageing fighter fleet undermines air force combat capability, with the replacement programme constrained by budget shortfalls. As of mid-2012, the favoured option was to acquire second-hand F-16s. There are a small number of tactical airlifters and Romania is a member of the Strategic Airlift Capability’s C-17 unit. Romania’s armed forces exercise regularly on a national and multinational basis.

ACTIVE 71,400 (Army 42,600, Navy 6,900, Air 8,400, Joint 13,500) Paramilitary 79,900

RESERVE 45,000 (Joint 45,000)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 42,600

Readiness is reported as 70–90% for NATO-designated forces and 40–70% for other forces

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

3 div HQ (1 NATO designated)

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bde

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

3 recce bn

Mechanised

5 mech bde (1 NATO designated)

Light

2 inf bde (1 NATO designated)

Mountain

2 mtn inf bde (1 NATO designated)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bde

3 arty regt

3 AD regt

1 engr bde

3 engr bn

3 sigs bn

1 CIMIC bn

1 MP bn

3 CBRN bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

4 spt bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 437: 250 T-55; 42 TR-580; 91 TR-85; 54 TR-85 M1

AIFV 124: 23 MLI-84; 101 MLI-84 JDER

APC 1,609

APC (T) 75 MLVM

APC (W) 969: 69 B33 TAB Zimbru; 31 Piranha III; 367 TAB-71; 140 TAB-77; 362 TABC-79

TYPE VARIANTS 505 APC

PPV 60 Maxxpro

ARTY 899

SP 122mm 24: 6 2S1; 18 Model 89

TOWED 422: 122mm 72 (M-30) M-1938 (A-19); 152mm 350: 247 M-1981 Model 81; 103 M-1985

MRL 122mm 187: 133 APR-40; 54 LAROM

MOR 120mm 266 M-1982

AT

MSLSP 134: 12 9P122 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 74 9P133 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 48 9P148 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel)

GUNS 100mm 232: 209 M1977 Gun 77; 23 SU-100 SP

AD GUNS 66

SP 35mm 42 Gepard

TOWED35mm 24 GDF-203

RADARSLAND 8 SNAR-10 Big Fred

ARV 3 BPz-2

Navy 6,900

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 3

DESTROYERS 3:

DDGH 1 Marasesti with 4 twin lnchr with P-15M Termit-M (SS-N-2C Styx) AShM, 2 triple 533mm ASTT with RUS 53–65 ASW, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2, 2 twin 76mm gun, (capacity 2 SA-316 (IAR-316) Alouette III hel)

DDH 2 Regele Ferdinand (ex-UK Type-22), with 2 triple 324mm TT, 1 76mm gun (capacity 1 SA330 (IAR-330) Puma)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 21

CORVETTES 4

FSH 2 Tetal II with 2 twin 533mm ASTT, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2, 2 AK630 CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 1 SA-316 (IAR-316) Alouette III hel)

FS 2 Tetal I with 2 twin 533mm ASTT with RUS 53-65 ASW, 2 RBU 2500 Smerch 1, 2 twin 76mm gun

PCFG 3 Zborul with 2 twin lnchr with P-15M Termit-M (SS-N-2C Styx) AShM, 2 AK630 CIWS, 1 76mm gun

PCR 8:

1 Brutar I with 2 BM-21 MRL, 1 100mm gun

4 Brutar II with 2 BM-21 MRL, 1 100mm gun

3 Kogalniceanu with 2 BM-21 MRL, 2 100mm gun

PBR 6 VD 141 (ex MSI now used for river patrol)

MINE WARFARE 11

MINE COUNTERMEASURES 10

MSO 4 Musca with 2 quad lnchr with Strela 2M (SA-N-5 Grail) SAM, 2 RBU 1200, 2 AK630 CIWS

MSI 6 VD141 (used for river MCM)

MINELAYERSML 1 Corsar with up to 100 mines, 2 RBU 1200 ASROC, 2 AK630 CIWS, 1 57mm gun

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 14

ADG 1 Magnetica

AETL 2 Constanta with 2 RBU 1200, 2 twin 57mm gun

AGOR 1 Corsar

AGS 2: 1 Emil Racovita; 1 Catuneanu

AOL 3: 1 Tulcea; 2 others

ATF 1 Grozavu

AXS 1 Mircea

YTL 3

   Naval Infantry
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

1 naval inf bn

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (W) 14: 11 ABC-79M; 3 TABC-79M

Air Force 8,400

Flying hours 120 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

2 sqn with MiG-21 Lancer C

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with MiG-21 Lancer A/B

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-26 Curl; An-30 Clank; C-27J Spartan

1 sqn with C-130B/H Hercules

TRAINING

1 sqn with IAR-99 Soim*

1 sqn with SA316B Alouette III (IAR-316B); Yak-52 (Iak-52)

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 (multirole) sqn with IAR-330 SOCAT Puma

3 sqn with SA330 Puma (IAR-330)

AIR DEFENCE

1 AD bde

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 engr regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 69 combat capable

FGA 36: 10 MiG-21 Lancer A; 6 MiG-21 Lancer B; 20 MiG-21 Lancer C

ISR 2 An-30 Clank

TPT 14: Medium 11: 6 C-27J Spartan; 4 C-130B Hercules; 1 C-130H Hercules; Light 3 An-26 Curl

TRG 32: 10 IAR-99 Soim*; 10 IAR-99C Soim*; 12 Yak-52 (Iak-52)

HELICOPTERS

MRH 31: 23 IAR-330 SOCAT Puma; 7 SA316B Alouette III (IAR-316B)

TPTMedium 37: 21 SA330L Puma (IAR-330L); 16 SA330M Puma (IAR-330M)

ADSAM 14: 6 S-75M3 Volkhov (SA-2 Guideline); 8 MIM-23 HAWK PIP III

MSL

AAMIR R-73 (AA-11 Archer); R-550 Magic 2; Python 3

ASM Spike-ER

Paramilitary 79,900

   Border Guards 22,900 (incl conscripts)

Ministry of Interior

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 14

PCO 1 Stefan cel Mare (Damen OPV 900)

PBF 1 Bigliani

PB 12: 4 Neustadt; 3 Mai; 5 SNR-17

   Gendarmerie ε57,000

Ministry of Interior

Cyber

Romania has a national CERT and is involved in informal CERT communities. A nationwide cyber-security policy is currently being implemented. The private sector is investing heavily in Romania with a number of international firms planning to open cyber-security facilities.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1991)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By parliament (Art. 62); or b) by president upon parliamentary approval (Art. 92).

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 1,077; 1 inf bn

UN • UNAMA 2 obs

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 37

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 3

UN • MONUSCO 22 obs

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 2 obs

Mali

NATO • EUTM Mali 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 61

UN • UNMIK 1 obs

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 2; 4 obs

Serbia

Serbia SER
Serbian Dinar d 2012 2013 2014
GDP d 3.69tr 3.97tr
US$ 37.4bn 42.9bn
per capita US$ 4,943 5,667
Growth % -1.76 2.00
Inflation % 7.35 9.57
Def bdgt d 73.9bn 58.7bn 61.4bn
US$ 841m 681m
FMA (US) US$ 1.8m 1.8m 1.8m
US$1=d 87.86 86.13
Population 7,243,007
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.6% 3.0% 3.2% 3.5% 24.6% 6.9%
Female 7.2% 2.8% 3.0% 3.3% 25.0% 10.0%

Capabilities

2011 saw the shift from conscript to professional armed forces as part of a near decade-long restructuring process, though voluntary conscription remains. Following the conflicts of the 1990s and the political turmoil of the turn of the century, the armed forces have been reduced in size, but with the long-term aim of crafting a capable and modern force. Primary goals of Serbia’s defence policy are the armed forces’ transformation and professionalisation, and capability development. The land forces are built around four combined-arms brigades, supported by an army aviation unit run by the air force. The latter has a small number of combat aircraft in service, and had been aiming to procure one or two squadrons of a modern multi-role type. Funding constraints have meant that this project has been delayed. Serviceability and platform availability are likely to be a problem for the air force.

ACTIVE 28,150 (Army 13,250, Air Force and Air Defence 5,100, Training Command 3,000, Guards 1,600; Other MoD 5,200)

Conscript liability 6 months (voluntary)

RESERVE 50,150

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 13,250

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF bde (1 CT bn, 1 cdo bn, 1 para bn, 1 log bn)

MANOEUVRE

Mechanised

1 (1st) bde (1 tk bn, 2 mech inf bn, 1 inf bn, 1 SP arty bn, 1 MRL bn, 1 AD bn, 1 engr bn, 1 log bn)

3 (2nd, 3rd & 4th) bde (1 tk bn, 2 mech inf bn, 2 inf bn, 1 SP arty bn, 1 MRL bn, 1 AD bn, 1 engr bn, 1 log bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 (mixed) arty bde (4 arty bn, 1 MRL bn, 1 spt bn)

2 ptn bridging bn

1 NBC bn

1 sigs bn

2 MP bn

   Reserve Organisations
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Light

8 (territorial) inf bde

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 212: 199 M-84; 13 T-72

RECCE 46 BRDM-2

AIFV 323 M-80

APC 39 BOV VP M-86

ARTY 515

SP 122mm 67 2S1

TOWED 204: 122mm 78 D-30; 130mm 18 M-46; 152mm 36 M-84; 155mm 72: 66 M-1; 6 M-65

MRL 81: 128mm 78: 18 M-63 Plamen; 60 M-77 Organj; 262mm 3 Orkan

MOR 163: 82mm 106 M-69; 120mm 57 M-74/M-75

AT

MSL

SP 48 BOV-1 (M-83) with 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger)

MANPATS 168: 99 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 69 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot)

RCL 6: 90mm 6 M-79

AD SAM 156

SP 94: 77 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful); 12 S-1M (SA-9 Gaskin); 5 SAVA S10M

MANPADS 62: 8 S-2M (SA-7 Grail)‡; 54 Šilo (SA-16 Gimlet)

GUNS 36

TOWED 40mm: 36 Bofors L70

AEV IWT

ARV M84A1; T-54/T-55

VLB MT-55; TMM

   River Flotilla

The Serbian-Montenegrin navy was transferred to Montenegro upon independence in 2006, but the Danube flotilla remained in Serbian control. The flotilla is subordinate to the Land Forces.

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 5

PBR 5: 3 Type-20; 2 others

MINE WARFARE MINE COUNTERMEASURES 4

MSI 4 Nestin

AMPHIBOUS LANDING CRAFT LCU 5 Type-22

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 5

ADG 1 Šabac

AGF 1 Kozara

AOL 1

YFD 1

YTL 1

Air Force and Air Defence 5,100

Flying hours: Ftr – 40 per yr

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

1 sqn with MiG-21bis Fishbed; MiG-29 Fulcrum

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with G-4 Super Galeb*; J-22 Orao

ISR

2 flt with IJ-22 Orao 1*; MiG-21R Fishbed H*

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with An-2; An-26; Do-28; Yak-40 (Jak-40); 1 PA-34 Seneca V

TRAINING

1 sqn with G-4 Super Galeb* (adv trg/light atk); SA341/342 Gazelle; Utva-75 (basic trg)

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 sqn with SA341H/342L Gazelle; (HN-42/45); Mi-24 Hind

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; Mi-17 Hip H

AIR DEFENCE

1 bde (5 bn (2 msl, 3 SP msl) with S-125 Neva (SA-3 Goa); 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful); 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail); 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet))

2 radar bn (for early warning and reporting)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 sigs bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 maint bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 84 combat capable

FTR 30: 20 MiG-21bis Fishbed L & N; 6 MiG-21UM Mongol B; 3 MiG-29 Fulcrum; 1 MiG-29UB Fulcrum

FGA 18 J-22 Orao 1

ISR 12: 10 IJ-22R Orao 1*; 2 MiG-21R Fishbed H*

TPTLight 10: 1 An-2 Colt; 4 An-26 Curl; 2 Do-28 Skyservant; 2 Yak-40 (Jak-40); 1 PA-34 Seneca V

TRG 45: 24 G-4 Super Galeb*; 11 Utva-75; 10 Lasta 95

HELICOPTERS

ATK 2 Mi-24 Hind

MRH 51: 2 Mi-17 Hip H; 2 SA341H Gazelle (HI-42); 34 SA341H Gazelle (HN-42)/SA342L Gazelle (HN-45); 13 SA341H Gazelle (HO-42)/SA342L1 Gazelle (HO-45)

TPTMedium 7 Mi-8T Hip (HT-40)

AD

SAM 15: 6 S-125 Pechora (SA-3 Goa); 9 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful)

MANPAD 156; 120 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail); 36 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet)

GUNS40mm 24 Bofors
L-70

MSL

AAM IR R-60 (AA-8 Aphid)

ASM AGM-65 Maverick; A-77 Thunder

Guards 1,600

MANOEUVRE

Other

1 (ceremonial) gd bde (1 gd bn, 1 MP bn, 1 spt bn)

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (2006)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By parliament (Art. 140)

Côte D’Ivoire

UN • UNOCI 3 obs

Cyprus

UN • UNFICYP 46

Democratic Republic of the Congo

UN • MONUSCO 5; 3 obs

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 49

Liberia

UN • UNMIL 4 obs

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 1 obs

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

FOREIGN FORCES

All OSCE unless specified

Austria 2

Bosnia-Herzegovina 2

Bulgaria 1

Canada 1

France 1

Germany 1

Hungary 1

Ireland 3

Italy 4

Norway 2

Russia 1

Sweden 1

Switzerland 1

United Kingdom 5

United States 4


TERRITORY WHERE THE GOVERNMENT DOES NOT EXERCISE EFFECTIVE CONTROL

Data here represent the de facto situation in Kosovo. This does not imply international recognition as a sovereign state. In February 2008, Kosovo declared itself independent. Serbia remains opposed to this, and while Kosovo has not been admitted to the United Nations, a number of states have recognised Kosovo’s self-declared status.

Kosovo Security Force 2,500; reserves 800

The Kosovo Security Force was formed, in January 2009, as a non-military organisation with responsibility for crisis response, civil protection and EOD. The force is armed with small arms and light vehicles only. A July 2010 law created a reserve force.

FOREIGN FORCES

All under Kosovo Force (KFOR) comd. unless otherwise specified.

Albania 14

Armenia 36

Austria 380; 1 mech inf coy • OSCE 8

Azerbaijan OSCE 1

Bosnia-Herzegovina OSCE 9

Bulgaria 11 • OSCE 1

Canada 5 • OSCE 7

Croatia 22 • OSCE 5

Czech Republic 7 • OSCE 1 • UNMIK 1 obs

Denmark 36

Estonia 2

Finland 21 • OSCE 1

France 316; 1 armd cav sqn; 1 log coy • OSCE 6

Georgia OSCE 4

Germany 741 • OSCE 2

Greece 120; 1 mech inf coy • OSCE 4

Hungary 201; 1 inf coy (KTM) • OSCE 2

Ireland 12 • OSCE 6

Italy 500; 1 MRL BG HQ • OSCE 12

Lithuania 1

Luxembourg 22

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of OSCE 17

Malta OSCE 1

Moldova UNMIK 1 obs • OSCE 2

Montenegro OSCE 1

Morocco 169; 1 inf coy

Netherlands 7

Norway 4 • UNMIK 1 obs

Poland 228; 1 inf coy • OSCE 4 • UNMIK 1 obs

Portugal 173; 1 AB coy (KTM) • OSCE 1

Romania 61 • UNMIK 1 obs

Russia OSCE 1

Slovakia OSCE 1

Slovenia 303; 2 mot inf coy

Spain OSCE 2

Sweden 52 • OSCE 2

Switzerland 223; 1 inf coy • OSCE 1

Turkey 367; 1 inf coy • OSCE 7 • UNMIK 1 obs

Ukraine 163; 1 inf coy • OSCE 1 • UNMIK 2 obs

United Kingdom 1 • OSCE 13

United States 669; 1 surv bde HQ • OSCE 10

Slovakia

Slovakia SVK
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 74.1bn 77.3bn
US$ 91.9bn 98.5bn
per capita US$ 16,899 18,089
Growth % 2.03 1.39
Inflation % 3.73 1.90
Def exp 790m
US$ 1.02bn
Def bdgt a 685m 748m 785m
US$ 881m 995m
FMA (US) US$ 1m 1m 0.45m
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions
Population 5,488,339
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.9% 2.9% 3.6% 3.9% 25.1% 5.1%
Female 7.6% 2.8% 3.4% 3.8% 25.6% 8.4%

Capabilities

The Slovakian armed forces suffer from the twin pressures of low funding and the need to modernise an ageing equipment inventory. The 2013 Defence White Paper underscored the scale of the problem, noting that 70% of land force equipment was now at the end of its service life. Training remains geared towards meeting core national requirements (such as SAR), NATO requirements (air defence), or focused on participation in international operations. Discussions were reported to have restarted on the possible provision of an airlift capability.

ACTIVE 15,850 (Army 6,250, Air 3,950, Central Staff 2,550, Support and Training 3,100)

Conscript liability 6 months

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Central Staff 2,550

SPECIAL FORCES

1 (5th Special) recce regt

Army 6,250

FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Mechanised

1 (1st) mech bde (3 mech inf bn, 1 engr coy, 1 spt bn)

1 (2nd) mech bde (1 ISATR coy, 1 tk bn, 2 mech inf bn, 1 mixed SP arty bn, 1 engr coy, 1 spt bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 MRL bn

1 engr bn

1 MP bn

1 NBC bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 30 T-72M

AIFV 239: 148 BMP-1; 91 BMP-2

APC 101+

APC (T) 72 OT-90

APC (W) 22: 7 OT-64; 15 Tatrapan (6×6)

PPV 7+ RG-32M

ARTY 68

SP 19: 152mm 3 M-77 Dana; 155mm 16 M-2000 Zuzana

TOWED 122mm 19 D-30

MRL 30: 122mm 4 RM-70; 122/227mm 26 RM-70/85 MODULAR

AT

SP 9S428 with Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger) on BMP-1; 9P135 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot) on BMP-2; 9P148 (AT-5 Spandrel) on BRDM-2

MANPATS 425 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger)/9K113 Shturm (AT-6 Spandrel)

AD

SAM

SP 48 9K35 Strela-10 (SA-13 Gopher)

MANPADS 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail); 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet)

RADARLAND SNAR-10 Big Fred (veh, arty)

ARV MT-55; VT-55A; VT-72B; WPT-TOPAS

VLB AM-50; MT-55A

MW Bozena; UOS-155 Belarty

Air Force 3,950

Flying hours 90 hrs/yr for MiG-29 pilots (NATO Integrated AD System); 90 hrs/yr for Mi-8/17 crews (reserved for EU & NATO)

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

1 sqn with MiG-29AS/UBS Fulcrum

TRANSPORT

1 flt with An-26 Curl

1 flt with L-410FG/T/UVP Turbolet

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; Mi-17 Hip H

1 sqn with PZL MI-2 Hoplite

TRAINING

1 sqn with L-39CM/ZA/ZAM Albatros

AIR DEFENCE

1 bde with 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful); 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail); S-300 (SA-10 Grumble)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 20 combat capable

FTR 20: 10 MiG-29AS Fulcrum; 2 MiG-29UBS Fulcrum; 8 MiG-29A/UB Fulcrum

TPT Light 9: 1 An-26 Curl; 2 L-410FG Turbolet; 2 L-410T Turbolet; 4 L-410UVP Turbolet

TRG 13: 6 L-39CM Albatros; 5 L-39ZA Albatros; 2 L-39ZAM Albatros

HELICOPTERS

ATK (15: 5 Mi-24D Hind D; 10 Mi-24V Hind E all in store)

MRH 14 Mi-17 Hip H

TPT 7: Medium 1 Mi-8 Hip; Light 6 PZL MI-2 Hoplite

ADSAM

SP S-300 (SA-10B Grumble); 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful)

MANPAD 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail)

MSL

AAMIR R-60 (AA-8 Aphid); R-73 (AA-11 Archer); SARH R-27R (AA-10A Alamo)

ASM S5K/S5KO (57mm rockets); S8KP/S8KOM (80mm rockets)

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1992)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the parliament (Art. 86)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 199

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 35

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1

Cyprus

UN • UNFICYP 157; elm 1 inf coy; 1 engr pl

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 2 obs

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 1

Slovenia

Slovenia SVN
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 35.1bn 36.1bn
US$ 45.6bn 46.7bn
per capita US$ 22,193 22,657
Growth % -2.34 -2.00
Inflation % 2.60 1.76
Def bdgt a 396m 357m 379m
US$ 509m 474m
FMA (US) US$ 0.45m 0.45m 0.45m
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Excludes military pensions
Population 1,992,690
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 6.9% 2.4% 2.8% 3.3% 26.2% 7.0%
Female 6.5% 2.3% 2.7% 3.2% 26.0% 10.5%

Capabilities

The armed forces’ role is to support territorial integrity and participate in peace-support and stabilisation operations. The 2010 Resolution on the General Long-Term Programme for the Development and Equipping of the Slovenian Armed Forces up to 2025 (Parliament, November 2010) is the main defence development and guidance document, as well as the principal long-term planning document. The Medium-Term Defence Programme 2013–2018 was developed with reference to the national budget, as well as NATO’s capability target package for Slovenia. Funding limitations continue to dictate the pace of change, particularly with regard to equipment; ambitions to acquire an indigenous air-policing capability to replace the Italian air force in the role remain unfulfilled. Given limited financial resources, there will be stress on improving maintenance and readiness of existing capacities. A major reorganisation of has left the armed forces with two manoeuvre brigades, a logistics brigade, a regimental-sized air wing and a small naval division. There is no organic capability to deploy beyond Slovenia’s borders.

ACTIVE 7,600 (Army 7,600) Paramilitary 5,950

RESERVE 1,500 (Army 1,500) Paramilitary 260

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 7,600

FORCES BY ROLE

Regt are bn sized

SPECIAL FORCES

1 SF unit (1 spec ops coy, 1 CSS coy)

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 ISR bn (2 coy)

Mechanised

1 mech inf bde (1st) (1 mech inf regt, 1 mtn inf regt, 1 cbt spt bn)

1 mech inf bde (72nd) (2 mech inf regt, 1 cbt spt bn)

Other

1 armd trg bn (1 armd coy)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bn (2 arty bty)

1 engr bn (2 engr coy)

1 EW coy

1 MP bn (3 MP coy)

1 CBRN bn (3 CBRN coy)

1 sigs bn (3 sigs coy)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde (1 log regt, 1 maint regt, 1 med regt)

   Reserves
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Mountain

2 inf regt (territorial - 1 allocated to each inf bde)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 46 M-84 (trg role)

RECCE 10 Cobra CBRN

APC (W) 115: 85 Pandur 6×6 (Valuk); 30 Patria 8×8 (Svarun)

ARTY 63

TOWED155mm 18 TN-90

MOR 120mm 45 MN-9

AT MSL

SP 24: 12 BOV-3 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 12 BOV-3 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot)

MANPATS 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot)

ARV VT-55A

VLB MTU

   Army Maritime Element 170
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

1 maritime det

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 2

PBF 1 Super Dvora MkII

PCC 1 Triglav III (RUS Svetlyak)

   Air Element 650
   FORCES BY ROLE

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with L-410 Turbolet; PC-6B Turbo Porter

TRAINING

1 unit with Bell 206 Jet Ranger (AB-206); PC-9; PC-9M*; Z-143L; Z-242L

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AS532AL Cougar; Bell 412 Twin Huey (some armed)

AIR DEFENCE

1 AD bn (2 AD bty)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 maint sqn

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 9 combat capable

TPTLight 3: 1 L-410 Turbolet; 2 PC-6B Turbo Porter

TRG 21: 2 PC-9; 9 PC-9M*; 2 Z-143L; 8 Z-242L

HELICOPTERS

MRH 8: 5 Bell 412EP Twin Huey; 2 Bell 412HP Twin Huey; 1 Bell 412SP Twin Huey (some armed)

TPT 8: Medium 4 AS532AL Cougar; Light 4 Bell 206 Jet Ranger (AB-206)

ADSAM 138

SP 6 Roland II

MANPAD 132: 36 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet); 96 9K38 Igla (SA-18 Grouse)

Paramilitary 5,950

   Police 5,950; 260 reservists

Ministry of Interior (civilian; limited elements could be prequalified to cooperate in military defence with the armed forces during state of emergency or war)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS PBF 1 Ladse

HELICOPTERS

MRH 1 Bell 412 Twin Huey,

TPT Light 5: 1 AW109; 2 Bell 206 (AB-206) Jet Ranger; 1 Bell 212 (AB-212); 1 EC135

Cyber

An MoD Cyber concept was drawn up in 2013, defining cyber defence capabilities that comply with NATO best practices and ENISA standards. A National Cyber Strategy was expected by end-2013.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1991)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By government (Art. 84 of Defence Act)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 60

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 14

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 14; 1 inf pl

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 3

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 5 obs

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 303; 2 mot inf coy

Spain

Spain ESP
Euro € 2012 2013 2014
GDP 1.04tr 1.06tr
US$ 1.35tr 1.39tr
per capita US$ 29,289 30,108
Growth % -1.42 -1.56
Inflation % 2.44 1.94
Def bdgt a 10.8bn 8.72bn
US$ 13.9bn 11.6bn
US$1=€ 0.78 0.75
a Includes military pensions
Population 47,370,542
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 7.9% 2.4% 2.7% 3.2% 25.8% 7.4%
Female 7.5% 2.2% 2.5% 2.9% 25.6% 10.0%

Capabilities

Budgetary pressures continue to erode Spain’s military capacity. The country’s only aircraft carrier, the Principe de Asturias, was withdrawn from service in February 2013, while some newly-delivered Typhoon combat aircraft were placed in storage. The Mirage F-1 was also withdrawn from service during the course of 2013. The 2013–16 defence plan sets out defence requirements against the backdrop of continuing austerity. An emphasis on modernisation at the start of the last decade is now one of trying simply to retain as much of the present capability as can be funded in strained circumstances. Spain intends to join the European Air Transport Command. This will provide access to additional airlift. Although the country is a partner in the A400M, and home to the aircraft’s final assembly line, it has been reported that Madrid is also looking to sell 13 of the 27 A400M airlifters it has on its order book. The number of Pizarro AFVs is also reduced. The armed forces are well-versed in combined operations with other countries, and Spain has been a long-term contributor to ISAF, though during 2013 it began to draw down the number of deployed personnel.

ACTIVE 134,900 (Army 70,800 Navy 22,200, Air 20,600 Joint 21,300) Paramilitary 80,700

RESERVE 14,200 (Army 3,000 Navy 9,000 Air 2,200)

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Space

SATELLITES COMMUNICATIONS 2: 1 Spainsat; 1 Xtar-Eur

Army 70,800

The Land Forces High Readiness HQ Spain provides one NATO Rapid Deployment Corps HQ (NRDC-SP).

FORCES BY ROLE

Infantry regiments usually comprise 2 bn. Spain deploys its main battle tanks within its armd/mech inf formations, and its armd cav regt

COMMAND

1 corps HQ (CGTAD) (1 int regt, 1 MP bn)

2 div HQ

SPECIAL FORCES

1 comd (3 Spec Ops bn, 1 int coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 (2nd) bde (3 lt armd cav regt, 1 fd arty regt, 1 AD coy, 1 engr bn, 1 int coy, 1 NBC coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

Armoured

1 (12th) bde (1 recce sqn, 1 armd inf regt, 1 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty bn, 1 AD coy, 1 engr bn, 1 int coy, 1 NBC coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

Mechanised

2 (10th & 11th) bde (1 recce sqn, 1 armd inf bn, 1 mech inf regt, 1 SP arty bn, 1 AT coy, 1 AD coy, 1 engr bn, 1 int coy, 1 NBC coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

Light

2 (2nd/La Legion & 7th) bde (1 recce bn, 2 inf regt, 1 fd arty bn, 1 AT coy, 1 AD coy, 1 engr bn, 1 int coy, 1 NBC coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

1 (5th) bde (2 lt inf regt)

Air Manoeuvre

1 (6th) bde (2 para bn, 1 air mob bn, 1 fd arty bn, 1 AT coy, 1 AD coy, 1 engr bn, 1 int coy, 1 NBC coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

Mountain

1 (1st) comd (3 mtn inf regt)

Other

1 (Canary Islands) comd (1 lt inf bde (3 lt inf regt, 1 fd arty regt, 1 AT coy, 1 engr bn, 1 int coy, 1 NBC coy, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn); 1 spt hel bn; 1 AD regt)

1 (Balearic Islands) comd (1 inf regt)

2 (Ceuta and Melilla) comd (1 cav regt, 2 inf regt, 1 arty regt, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs coy, 1 log bn)

Aviation

1 (FAMET) avn comd (1 atk hel bn, 2 spt hel bn, 1 tpt hel bn, 1 sigs bn, 1 log unit (1 spt coy, 1 supply coy))

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty comd (3 arty regt; 1 coastal arty regt)

1 AD comd (5 ADA regt, 1 sigs unit)

1 engr comd (2 engr regt, 1 bridging regt)

1 EW/sigs bde with (1 EW regt, 3 sigs regt)

1 EW regt

1 NBC regt

1 railway regt

1 sigs regt

1 CIMIC bn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde (5 log regt)

1 med bde (1 log unit, 2 med regt, 1 fd hospital unit)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 327: 108 Leopard 2A4; 219 Leopard 2A5E

RECCE 293: 84 B-1 Centauro; 209 VEC-3562 BMR-VEC

AIFV 144 Pizarro (incl 21 comd)

APC 875

APC (T) 453 M113 (incl variants)

APC (W) 312 BMR-600/BMR-600M1

PPV 110 RG-31

ARTY 1,894

SP 155mm 96 M109A5

TOWED 329: 105mm 224: 56 L118 light gun; 168 Model 56 pack howitzer; 155mm 105: 41 M114; 64 SBT 155/52 SIAC

COASTAL 155mm 19 SBT 155/52 APU SBT V07

MOR 1,450: 81mm 989; 120mm 461

AT MSL

SP 116 Milan

MANPATS Spike-LR; Milan; TOW

HELICOPTERS

ATK 6 EC665 Tiger HAP-E (18 HAD-E on order)

MRH 21 Bo-105 HOT

TPT 75: Heavy 17 CH-47D Chinook (HT-17D); Medium 36: 16 AS332B Super Puma (HU-21); 14 AS532UL Cougar; 6 AS532AL Cougar; Light 22: 17 Bell-205 (HU-10B Iroquois); 5 Bell 212 (HU.18)

UAV ISR Medium 4 Searcher Mk II-J (PASI)

AD 370

SAM 279

SP 18 Roland

TOWED 81: 52 MIM-23B I-HAWK Phase III; 13 Skyguard/Aspide; 8 NASAMS; 8 PAC-2 Patriot

MANPAD Mistral

GUNSTOWED 35mm 91 GDF-005

RADAR LAND 6: 4 ARTHUR; 2 AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder

AEV 39 CZ-10/25E

ARV 58: 16 Büffel; 1 AMX-30; 1 BMR 3560.55; 4 Centauro REC; 22 M47-VR; 2 M578; 12 M113

VLB 19 M60

Navy 22,200 (incl Naval Aviation and Marines)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 3:

3 Galerna with 4 single 533mm TT with F17 Mod 2/L5 HWT

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 11

DESTROYERS DDGHM 5:

5 Alvaro de Bazan with Baseline 5 Aegis C2, 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84F Harpoon AShM, 1 48-cell Mk41 VLS (LAM capable) with SM-2MR/RIM-162B Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 127mm gun, (capacity 1 SH-60B Seahawk ASW hel)

FRIGATESFFGHM 6:

6 Santa Maria with 1 Mk13 GMLS with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM/SM-1MR SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity 2 SH-60B Seahawk ASW hel)

AMPHIBIOUS

PRINCIPAL AMPHIBIOUS SHIPS 3:

LHD 1 Juan Carlos I (capacity 4 LCM; 42 APC; 46 MBT; 700 troops; able to operate as platform for aviation group)

LPD 2 Galicia (capacity 6 Bell 212 or 4 SH-3D Sea King hel; 4 LCM; 130 APC or 33 MBT; 450 troops)

LANDING CRAFT 14

LCM 14 LCM 1E

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 2

AORH 2: 1 Patino (capacity 3 Bell 212 or 2 SH-3D Sea King hel); 1 Cantabria (capacity 3 Bell 212 or 2 SH-3D Sea King hel)

Navy – Maritime Action Force

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 23

PSO 7:

3 Alboran each with 1 hel landing platform

4 Descubierta with 1 76mm gun

PSOH 4 Meteoro (Buques de Accion Maritima – 5 additional vessels on order, of which 3 are PSOH, 1 ASR and 1 AGS)

PCO 4 Serviola with 1 76mm gun

PCC 3 Anaga with 1 76mm gun

PB 2 Toralla with 1 76mm gun

PBR 3 P-101/114/201

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 6

MHO 6 Segura

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 77

AGDS 1 Neptuno

AGI 1 Alerta

AGOR 2 (with ice-strengthened hull, for polar research duties in Antarctica)

AGS 4: 2 Malaspina; 2 Castor (1 scheduled to decommission by end-2013)

AK 2: 1 Martin Posadillo (with 1 hel landing platform); 1 El Camino Español

AP 1 Contramaestre (with 1 hel landing platform)

ATF 3: 1 Mar Caribe; 1 Mahon; 1 La Grana

AXL 8: 4 Contramaestre; 4 Guardiamarina

AXS 8

YO 22

YTM 25

   Naval Aviation 800

Flying hours 150 hrs/year on AV-8B Harrier II FGA ac; 200 hrs/year on hel

   FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

1 sqn with SH-60B Seahawk

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE

1 sqn with SH-60B Seahawk

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING

1 sqn with SH-3H AEW Sea King

TRANSPORT

1 (liaison) sqn with Cessna 550 Citation II; Cessna 650 Citation VII

TRAINING

1 sqn with Hughes 500MD8

1 flt with TAV-8B Harrier

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with Bell 212 (HU-18)

1 sqn with SH-3D Sea King

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 17 combat capable

FGA 17: 4 AV-8B Harrier II; 12 AV-8B Harrier II Plus; 1 TAV-8B Harrier (on lease from USMC)

TPTLight 4: 3 Cessna 550 Citation II; 1 Cessna 650 Citation VII

HELICOPTERS

ASW 19: 7 SH-3D Sea King (tpt); 12 SH-60B Seahawk

MRH 9 Hughes 500MD

AEW 3 SH-3H AEW Sea King

TPT Light 7 Bell 212 (HA-18)

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120 AMRAAM

ASM AGM-65G Maverick

AShM AGM-119 Penguin

   Marines 5,300
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 spec ops unit

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

5 mne garrison gp

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 16 M60A3TTS

APC (W) 39 Piranha IIIC

AAV 18: 16 AAV-7A1/AAVP-7A1; 2 AAVC-7A1

ARTY 18

SP 155mm 6 M109A2

TOWED 105mm 12 M-56 (pack)

AT

MSL MANPATS 24 TOW-2

RL 90mm C-90C

ADSAMMANPAD 12 Mistral

ARV 1 AAVR-7A1

Air Force 20,600

The Spanish Air Force is organised in 3 commands – General Air Command, Combat Air Command and Canary Islands Air Command

Flying hours 120 hrs/year on hel/tpt ac; 180 hrs/year on FGA/ftr

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

2 sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

5 sqn with F/A-18A/B MLU Hornet (EF-18A/B MLU)

MARITIME PATROL

1 sqn with P-3A/M Orion

ISR

1 sqn with Beech C90 King Air

1 sqn with Cessna 550 Citation V; CN-235 (TR-19A)

ELECTRONIC WARFARE

1 sqn with B-707 Santiago; C-212 Aviocar; Falcon 20D/E

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with AS332B/B1 Super Puma; CN-235 VIGMA

1 sqn with AS332B Super Puma; CN-235 VIGMA

1 sqn with C-212 Aviocar; CN-235 VIGMA; SA330J/L Puma (AS330)

TANKER/TRANSPORT

1 sqn with B-707/B-707 tkr

1 sqn with KC-130H Hercules

TRANSPORT

1 VIP sqn with A310; Falcon 900

1 sqn with C-130H/H-30 Hercules

1 sqn with C-212 Aviocar

2 sqn with C-295

1 sqn with CN-235

TRAINING

1 OCU sqn with Eurofighter Typhoon

1 OCU sqn with F/A-18A/B (EF-18A/B MLU) Hornet

1 sqn with Beech F33C Bonanza

2 sqn with C-101 Aviojet

1 sqn with C-212 Aviocar

1 sqn with T-35 Pillan (E-26)

2 (LIFT) sqn with F-5B Freedom Fighter

1 hel sqn with EC120 Colibri

1 hel sqn with S-76C

FIRE FIGHTING

2 sqn with CL-215; CL-415

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

1 sqn with AS332M1 Super Puma; AS532UL Cougar (VIP)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 157 combat capable

FTR 65: 45 Eurofighter Typhoon; 20 F-5B Freedom Fighter

FGA 86: 74 F/A-18A Hornet (EF-18A); 12 F/A-18B Hornet (EF-18B – 67 EF-18s being given MLU)

ASW 6: 2 P-3A Orion; 4 P-3M Orion

MP 8 CN-235 VIGMA

ISR 2 CN-235 (TR-19A)

EW 6: 1 B-707 Santiago (TM.17); 1 C-212 Aviocar (TM.12D); 2 Falcon 20D; 2 Falcon 20E

TKR 6: 5 KC-130H Hercules, 1 B-707 Tkr

TPT 73: Medium 7: 6 C-130H Hercules; 1 C-130H-30 Hercules; Light 57: 4 Beech C90 King Air; 22 Beech F33C Bonanza; 7 C-212 Aviocar; 13 C-295; 8 CN-235; 3 Cessna 550 Citation V (ISR); PAX 9: 2 A310; 2 B-707; 5 Falcon 900 (VIP)

TRG 103: 66 C-101 Aviojet; 37 T-35 Pillan (E-26)

FF 17: 14 CL-215; 3 CL-415

HELICOPTERS

TPT 46: Medium 23: 11 AS332B/B1 Super Puma; 4 AS332M1 Super Puma; 2 AS532UL Cougar (VIP); 4 SA330J Puma (AS330); 2 SA330L Puma (AS330); Light 23: 15 EC-120 Colibri; 8 S-76C

AD

SAM Mistral; R-530

TOWED Skyguard/Aspide

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L/JULI Sidewinder; IIR IRIS-T; SARH AIM-7P Sparrow; ARH AIM-120B/C AMRAAM

ARM AGM-88A HARM

ASM AGM-65G Maverick

AShM AGM-84C/D Harpoon

LACM Taurus KEPD 350

BOMBS

Conventional: Mk 82; Mk 83; Mk 84; BR-250; BR-500; BRP-250

Laser-guided: GBU-10/16 Paveway II; GBU-24 Paveway III; EGBU-16 Paveway II; BPG-2000

   Emergencies Military Unit (UME)
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

1 div HQ

FIRE FIGHTING

2 sqn with CL-215; CL-415 opcon Air Force

MANOEUVRE

Aviation

1 hel bn opcon Army

Other

5 Emergency Intervention bn

Paramilitary 80,700

   Guardia Civil 79,950

9 regions, 56 Rural Comds

   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

10 (rural) gp

MANOEUVRE

Other

17 (Tercios) paramilitary regt

6 (traffic) sy gp

1 (Special) sy bn

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (W) 18 BLR

HELICOPTERS

MRH 26 Bo-105ATH

TPT Light 12: 8 BK-117; 4 EC-135P2

   Guardia Civil Del Mar 750

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 72

PSO 1 with 1 hel landing platform

PCC 2

PBF 40

PB 29

Cyber

Spain has established a cyber command. Spain has a national CERT and is a member of the European CERT group. The national intelligence CERT (CCN-CERT) is responsible for coordinating CERT activities.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1978)

Specific legislation: ‘Ley Orgánica de la Defensa Nacional’ (2005)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) By the government (Art. 6 of the ‘Defence Law’); b) parliamentary approval is required for military operations ‘which are not directly related to the defence of Spain or national interests’ (Art. 17 of the ‘Defence Law’)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 856

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 12

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1

Gulf of Aden & Indian Ocean

EU Operation Atalanta 1 PSO; 1 P-3A

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 587; 1 armd inf bde HQ; 1 mech inf BG

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 59

Mediterranean Sea

NATO • SNMG 2 1 DDGHM

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

Serbia

OSCE • Kosovo 2

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 16

FOREIGN FORCES

United States US European Command: 1,480 1 air base at Morón; 1 naval base at Rota

Sweden

Sweden SWE
Swedish Krona Skr 2012 2013 2014
GDP Skr 3.67tr 3.84tr
US$ 526bn 576bn
per capita US$ 55,158 60,020
Growth % 1.20 1.01
Inflation % 0.89 0.30
Def exp a Skr 40.8bn
US$ 6.02bn
Def bdgt a Skr 41.8bn 42.3bn 43.4bn
US$ 6.17bn 6.63bn
US$1=Skr 6.78 6.38
a Excludes military pensions and peacekeeping expenditure
Population 9,119,423
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.9% 3.0% 3.6% 3.3% 22.5% 9.2%
Female 7.5% 2.8% 3.5% 3.2% 22.2% 11.3%

Capabilities

Sweden’s army and air force are relatively well-equipped, but the navy retains limited capabilities and is unable to operate beyond territorial waters and the Baltic Sea. Sweden regularly participates in peacekeeping operations, and sent troops to participate in the NATO-led coalition in Afghanistan and aircraft to Operation Unified Protector off Libya in 2011, even though the country remains outside NATO. Territorial defence is the primary role of the armed forces and Sweden’s power-projection capabilities are limited. Two Stockholm-class corvettes that participated in Operation Atalanta in 2009 were unable to make the journey independently, and were transported by a dock ship. The air force has only one tanker to support its aircraft when on operations. Swedish forces are well-trained and professional; compulsory military service was formally abolished in July 2010. The country is moving ahead with the next generation Gripen, and 2014 should bring a final decision from Switzerland to also go ahead with the procurement of the Gripen E. Increased Russian air activity has highlighted the reduced state of round-the-clock responsiveness by the Swedish air force. Nevertheless, Sweden’s armed forces will likely continue to fulfil one of their main goals of contributing small units and support to multinational coalitions.

ACTIVE 15,300 (Army 5,550 Navy 3,000 Air 3,300 Staff 3,450) Paramilitary 800 Voluntary Auxiliary Organisations 22,000

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Army 5,550

The army has been transformed to provide brigade-sized task forces depending on the operational requirement.

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

1 div HQ (on mobilisation)

2 bde HQ

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

1 recce bn

Armoured

3 armd coy

Mechanised

4 mech bn

Light

2 mot inf bn

1 lt inf bn

Air Manoeuvre

1 AB bn

Other

1 sy bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

2 arty bn

2 AD bn

2 engr bn

2 MP coy

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

2 log bn

   Reserves
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Other

40 Home Guard bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 132: 12 Leopard 2A4 (Strv-121); 120 Leopard 2A5 (Strv 122)

AIFV 354 CV9040 (Strf 9040)

APC 663+

APC (T) 242: 194 Pbv 302; 48 BvS10 MkII

APC (W) 161+: 23 XA-180 Sisu (Patgb 180); 1 XA-202 Sisu (Patgb 202); 136 XA-203 Sisu (Patgb 203); 1+ XA-360 (Patgb 360)

PPV 260 RG-32M

ARTY 195

SP 155mm 4 Archer being delivered

MOR 120mm 191

AT

MSLMANPATS RB-55; RB-56 Bill

RCL 84mm Carl Gustav

AD

SAM

SP 16 RBS-70

TOWED RBS-90

MANPAD RBS-70

GUNS SP 40mm 30 Strv 90LV

RADARLAND ARTHUR (arty); M113A1GE Green Archer (mor)

UAV ISR Medium 3 Sperwer

AEV Kodiak

ARV 40: 14 Bgbv 120; 26 CV90

MW Aardvark Mk2; 33 Area Clearing System

Navy 2,150; 850 Amphibious; (total 3,000)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINES 6

TACTICALSSK 5:

3 Gotland (AIP fitted) with 2 single 400mm TT with Tp432/Tp 451, 4 single 533mm TT with Tp613/Tp62

2 Sodermanland (AIP fitted) with 6 single 533mm TT with Tp432/Tp451/Tp613/Tp62

SSW 1 Spiggen II

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 22

CORVETTES FSG 5 Visby with 8 RBS-15 AShM, 4 single 400mm ASTT with Tp45 LWT, 1 57mm gun, 1 hel landing plaform, (all to be at FOC by mid-2014)

PCG 4:

2 Göteborg with 4 twin lnchr with RBS-15 Mk2 AShM, 4 single 400mm ASTT with Tp431 LWT, 4 Saab 601 A/S mor, 1 57mm gun

2 Stockholm with 4 twin lnchr with RBS-15 Mk2 AShM, 4 Saab 601 mortars, 4 single ASTT with Tp431 LWT, 1 57mm gun

PB 2

PBR 11 Tapper

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 13

MCC 5 Koster


MCD 2 Spårö

MSD 6: 5 Sam; 1 Sokaren

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFT 156

LCM 9 Trossbat

LCPL 147 Combatboat 90

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 46

AG 2: 1 Carlskrona with 2 57mm gun, 1 hel landing platform (former ML); 1 Trosso (spt ship for corvettes and patrol vessels but can also be used as HQ ship)

AGF 2 Combatboat 450

AGI 1 Orion

AGS 2 (Government Maritime Forces)

AK 1 Loke

ARS 2: 1 Belos III; 1 Furusund (former ML)

AX 5 Altair

AXS 2: 1 Falkan; 1 Gladan

YAG 16 Trossbat

YDT 1 Agir

YPT 1 Pelikanen

YTM 11

   Amphibious 850
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

1 amph bn

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

ARTY MOR 81mm 12

MSLAShM 8 RBS-17 Hellfire

Air Force 3,300

Flying hours 100–150 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK/ISR

4 sqn with JAS 39C/D Gripen

SIGINT

1 sqn with Gulfstream IV SRA-4 (S-102B)

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL

1 sqn with S-100B/D Argus

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130E/H Hercules (Tp-84); KC-130H Hercules (Tp-84)

TRAINING

1 sqn with JAS-39A/B Gripen

1 OCU sqn with JAS-39A/B/C/D Gripen

1 unit with Sk-60

AIR DEFENCE

1 (fighter control and air surv) bn

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 134 combat capable

FGA 134 JAS39A/B/C/D Gripen

ELINT 2 Gulfstream IV SRA-4 (S-102B)

AEW&C 3: 1 S-100B Argus; 2 S-100D Argus

TKR 1 KC-130H Hercules (Tp-84)

TPT 10: Medium 7 C-130E/H Hercules (Tp-84); Light 2 Saab 340 (OS-100A/Tp-100C); PAX 1 Gulfstream 550 (Tp-102D)

TRG 80 Sk-60W

UAV ISRMedium 8 RQ-7 Shadow (AUV 3 Örnen)

MSL

ASM AGM-65 Maverick (RB-75)

AShM RB-15F

AAMIR AIM-9L Sidewinder (RB-74); IIR IRIS-T (RB-98); ARH AIM-120B AMRAAM (RB-99)

   Armed Forces Hel Wing
   FORCES BY ROLE

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

3 sqn with AS332 Super Puma (Hkp-10A/B/D); AW109 (Hkp 15A); AW109M (Hkp-15B); NH90 TTH (Hkp-14A); UH-60M Black Hawk (Hkp-16)

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

HELICOPTERS

TPT 51: Medium 31: 9 AS332 Super Puma (Hkp-10A/B/D - SAR); 15 UH-60M Black Hawk (Hkp-16); 7 NH90 TTH (Hkp-14A); Light 20: 12 AW109 (Hkp-15A); 8 AW109M (Hkp-15B)

Paramilitary 800

   Coast Guard 800
   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 28

PSO 3 KBV-001

PCO 1 KBV-181 (fishery protection)

PCC 2 KBV-201

PB 22: 1 KBV-101; 4 KBV-281; 3 KBV-288; 11 KBV-301; 3 KBV-312

AMPHIBIOUS • LANDING CRAFT • LCAC 2 Griffon 2000 TDX (KBV-591)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT • AG 12: 8 MARPOL-CRAFT; 4 KBV-031

      Air Arm

AIRCRAFTTPT Light 3 DHC-8Q-300

Cyber

Sweden has a national CERT, is involved in informal CERT communities, and is a member of the European Government CERTs group (EGC). A national cyber-security strategy has also been adopted. Four ministries have a cyber remit: defence, foreign affairs, justice, and enterprise and industry. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (AMS), which reports to the MoD, is in charge of supporting and coordinating security across society.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Constitution consists of four fundamental laws; the most important is ‘The Instrument of Government’ (1974)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the government upon parliamentary approval (Ch. 10, Art. 9)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 259

UN • UNAMA 2 obs

Armenia/Azerbaijan

OSCE • Minsk Conference 1

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 2

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 1

UN • MONUSCO 5 obs

India/Pakistan

UN • UNMOGIP 5 obs

Korea, Republic of

NNSC • 5 obs

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 16

UN • MINUSMA 6

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 6 obs

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 52

OSCE • Kosovo 2

OSCE • Serbia 1

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 2; 4 obs

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 4

Switzerland

Switzerland CHE
Swiss Franc fr 2012 2013 2014
GDP fr 602bn 617bn
US$ 632bn 648bn
per capita US$ 79,033 80,473
Growth % 0.98 1.28
Inflation % -0.70 -0.20
Def exp a fr 4.31bn
US$ 4.59bn
Def bdgt a fr 4.53bn 4.69bn 4.73bn
US$ 4.83bn 5.04bn
US$1=fr 0.94 0.93
a Excludes military pensions
Population 7,996,026
Age 0 – 14 15 – 19 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 64 65 plus
Male 7.8% 2.8% 3.0% 3.3% 24.8% 7.5%
Female 7.4% 2.7% 3.0% 3.3% 24.6% 9.8%

Capabilities

The Swiss armed forces are almost entirely reliant on conscripts for their active personnel and reserves for full mobilisation, with professional, volunteer personnel comprising just 5% of the total armed forces. A referendum proposing an end to conscription was rejected in 2013, and with conscripts and reserves only serving for short periods of time the armed forces lack adaptability and readiness. However, Switzerland’s policy of neutrality limits the missions of the armed forces to territorial defence in a benign environment and international peace-support operations, mitigating some of the problems of the conscription model. The armed forces’ equipment is largely aimed at protecting Switzerland’s territorial sovereignty, with limited power-projection capabilities (only light transport aircraft and no tankers). The size of the armed forces is likely to be severely reduced in forthcoming years. Current plans suggest a reduction to 100,000 personnel (still largely conscript and reserves), despite an increasing defence budget in the near term. Some of this extra funding may now be spent on replacing ageing F-5 aircraft with Gripens in the air-policing role after a deal was approved by parliament in late 2013, although the purchase might still face a referendum in 2014.

ACTIVE 22,650 (Joint 22,650)

Conscript liability Recruit trg of 18, 21 or 25 weeks (depending on military branch) at age 19–20, followed by 7, 6, or 5 refresher trg courses (3 weeks each) over a 10-year period between ages 20–30

RESERVE 161,250 (Army 106,900, Air 24,250, Armed Forces Logistic Organisation 14,150, Command Support Organisation 15,950)

Civil Defence 74,000

 

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Joint 3,350 active; 19,300 conscript (22,650 total)

   Land Forces (Army) 106,900 on mobilisation

4 Territorial Regions. With the exception of military security all units are non-active.

   FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

4 regional comd (2 engr bn, 1 sigs bn)

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 (1st) bde (1 recce bn, 2 armd bn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 sp arty bn, 2 engr bn, 1 sigs bn)

1 (11th) bde (1 recce bn, 2 armd bn, 2 armd inf bn, 1 inf bn, 2 SP arty bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn)

Light

1 (2nd) bde (1 recce bn, 4 inf bn, 2 SP arty bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn)

1 (5th) bde (1 recce bn, 3 inf bn, 2 SP arty bn, 1 engr bn, 1 sigs bn)

1 (7th) reserve bde (3 recce bn, 3 inf bn, 2 mtn inf bn, 1 sigs bn)

Mountain

1 (9th) bde (5 mtn inf bn, 1 SP Arty bn, 1 sigs bn) 

1 (12th) bde (2 inf bn, 3 mtn inf bn, 1 (fortress) arty bn, 1 sigs bn)

1 (10th) reserve bde (1 recce bn, 2 armd bn, 3 inf bn, 2 mtn inf bn, 2 SP arty bn, 2 sigs bn)

Other

1 sy bde

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 armd/arty trg unit

1 inf trg unit

1 engr rescue trg unit

1 log trg unit

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 250 Leopard 2 (Pz-87 Leo)

RECCE 455: 443 Eagle II; 12 Piranha IIIC CBRN

AIFV 186: 154 CV9030; 32 CV9030 CP

APC 914

APC (T) 238 M113A2 (incl variants)

APC (W) 676: 346 Piranha II; 330 Piranha I/II/IIIC CP

ARTY 383

SP 155mm 133 M109

MOR SP 81mm 250 M113 with M72/91

AT MSLSP 110 Piranha I TOW-2

ADSAM MANPAD FIM-92A Stinger

AEV 12 Kodiak

ARV 25 Büffel

MW 46: 26 Area Clearing System; 20 M113A2

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTSPBR 11 Aquarius

   Air Force 24,250 (incl air defence units and military airfield guard units)

Flying hours 200–250 hrs/year

   FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

3 sqn with F-5E/F Tiger II

3 sqn with F/A-18C/D Hornet

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with Beech 350 King Air; DHC-6 Twin Otter; PC-6 Turbo Porter; PC-12

1 VIP Flt with Beech 1900D; Cessna 560XL Citation; Falcon 900EX

TRAINING

1 sqn with PC-7CH Turbo Trainer; PC-21

1 sqn with PC-9 (tgt towing)

1 OCU Sqn with F-5E/F Tiger II

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

6 sqn with AS332M Super Puma; AS532UL Cougar; EC635

ISR UAV

1 sqn with ADS 95 Ranger

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 86 combat capable

FTR 54: 42 F-5E Tiger II; 12 F-5F Tiger II

FGA 32: 26 F/A-18C Hornet; 6 F/A-18D Hornet

TPT 22: Light 21: 1 Beech 350 King Air; 1 Beech1900D; 1 Cessna 560XL Citation; 1 DHC-6 Twin Otter; 15 PC-6 Turbo Porter; 1 PC-6 (owned by armasuisse, civil registration); 1 PC-12 (owned by armasuisse, civil registration); PAX 1 Falcon 900EX

TRG 44: 28 PC-7CH Turbo Trainer; 8 PC-9; 8 PC-21

HELICOPTERS

TPT 46: Medium 26: 15 AS332M Super Puma; 11 AS532UL Cougar; Light 20 EC635

UAVISRMedium 16 ADS 95 Ranger (4 systems)

MSLAAMIR AIM-9P Sidewinder; IIR AIM-9X Sidewinder; ARH AIM-120B AMRAAM

      Ground Based Air Defence (GBAD)

GBAD assets can be used to form AD clusters to be deployed independently as task forces within Swiss territory.

      EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AD

SAM

TOWED Rapier

MANPAD FIM-92A Stinger

GUNS 35mm

RADARS • AD RADARS Skyguard

   Armed Forces Logistic Organisation 14,150 on mobilisation
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 log bde

   Command Support Organisation 15,950 on mobilisation
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 spt bde

Civil Defence 74,000

(not part of armed forces)

Cyber

Five major Swiss government organisations maintain an overview of elements of cyber threats and responses: the Federal Intelligence Service; the Military Intelligence Service; the Command Support Organisation; Information Security and Facility Protection; and the Federal Office for Civil Protection. A National Cyber Defence Strategy was published in 2012.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1999)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad:

Peace promotion (66, 66a, 66b Swiss Mil Law): UN.OSCE mandate. Decision by govt; if over 100 tps deployed or op over 3 weeks Fed Assembly must agree first, except in emergency.

Support service abroad (69, 60 Swiss Mil Law): Decision by govt; if over 2,000 tps or op over 3 weeks Fed Assembly must agree in next official session

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 20

Democratic Republic of the Congo

UN • MONUSCO 3; 1 obs

Korea, Republic of

NNSC • 5 officers

Middle East

UN • UNTSO 12 obs

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 223 (military volunteers); 1 inf coy

OSCE • Kosovo 1

OSCE • Serbia 1

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 2; 2 obs

Turkey

Turkey TUR
New Turkish Lira L 2012 2013 2014
GDP L 1.57tr 1.72tr
US$ 794bn 852bn
per capita US$ 10,609 11,236
Growth % 2.62 3.43
Inflation % 8.91 6.64
Def exp L 30.7bn
US$ 17.1bn
Def bdgt a L 18.3bn 19.8bn 22.4bn
US$ 10.2bn 10.7bn
US$1=L 1.80 1.84
a Includes funding for Undersecretariat of Defence Industries. Excludes military procurement allocations.
Population 80,694,485
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 13.2% 4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 21.2% 3.0%
Female 12.6% 4.2% 4.1% 4.2% 20.9% 3.6%

Capabilities

Turkey has capable armed forces intended to meet national defence requirements and its NATO obligations. The role of the armed forces has been recast since the end of the Cold War, with internal security and regional instability providing challenges, as made apparent by events in Syria. The army is becoming smaller but more capable, with the aim of improving its ability to meet a full range of NATO missions while providing a highly mobile force able to fight across the spectrum of conflict. The air force is well-equipped and well-trained, and is introducing airborne early-warning aircraft. It already operates tanker aircraft and will bolster its transport fleet with the A400M airlifter. The navy is the smallest of the three services, and operates a mix of frigates, corvettes, fast-attack craft and amphibious vessels. The military has ambitious procurement plans, which will require a significant increase in funding over the period to 2016. Turkish forces are deployed to ISAF, and Ankara sent ships to take part in Operation Unified Protector in 2011. Single and inter-service training is carried out regularly, as is mobilisation training, and the armed forces participate in multinational exercises with NATO partners. Under NATO auspices, the US, the Netherlands and Germany deployed Patriot missile batteries to southern Turkey in 2013, in light of perceived threats from the conflict in Syria.

ACTIVE 510,600 (Army 402,000 Navy 48,600 Air 60,000) Paramilitary 102,200

Conscript liability 15 months. Active figure reducing.

RESERVE 378,700 (Army 258,700 Navy 55,000 Air 65,000) Paramilitary 50,000

Reserve service to age of 41 for all services.

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Space

SATELLITESISR 1 Gokturk-2

Army ε77,000; ε325,000 conscript (total 402,000)

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

4 army HQ

9 corps HQ

SPECIAL FORCES

4 cdo bde

1 mtn cdo bde

1 cdo regt

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 (52nd) armd div (2 armd bde, 1 mech bde)

7 armd bde

Mechanised

2 (28th & 29th) mech div

14 mech inf bde

Light

1 (23rd) mot inf div (3 mot inf regt)

11 mot inf bde

Aviation

4 avn regt

4 avn bn

COMBAT SUPPORT

2 arty bde

1 trg arty bde

6 arty regt

2 engr regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 2,504: 325 Leopard 2A4; 170 Leopard 1A4; 227 Leopard 1A3; 274 M60A1; 658 M60A3; 850 M48A5 T1/T2 (2,000 more in store)

RECCE 320+: ε250 Akrep; 70+ ARSV Cobra

AIFV 650 AIFV

APC (T) 3,643: 830 AAPC; 2,813 M113/M113A1/M113A2

ARTY 7,822+

SP 1,103: 105mm 391: 26 M108T; 365 M-52T; 155mm 457: 222 M-44T1; ε235 T-155 Firtina (K-9 Thunder); 175mm 36 M107; 203mm 219 M110A2

TOWED 760+: 105mm 75+ M101A1; 155mm 523: 517 M114A1/M114A2; 6 Panter; 203mm 162 M115

MRL 146+: 107mm 48; 122mm ε36 T-122; 227mm 12 MLRS (incl ATACMS); 302mm 50+ TR-300 Kasirga (WS-1)

MOR 5,813+

SP 1,443+: 81mm; 107mm 1,264 M-30; 120mm 179

TOWED 4,370: 81mm 3,792; 120mm 578

AT

MSL 1,363

SP 365 TOW

MANPATS 998: 80 9K123 Kornet; 186 Cobra; ε340 Eryx; 392 Milan

RCL 3,869: 57mm 923 M18; 75mm 617; 106mm 2,329 M40A1

AIRCRAFT

TPTLight 38: 5 Beech 200 King Air; 30 Cessna 185 (U-17B); 3 Cessna 421

TRG 74: 45 Cessna T182; 25 T-41D Mescalero; 4 T-42A Cochise

HELICOPTERS

ATK 40: 18 AH-1P Cobra; 12 AH-1S Cobra; 6 AH-1W Cobra; 4 TAH-1P Cobra

MRH 28 Hughes 300C

ISR 3 OH-58B Kiowa

TPT 221+: Medium 80+: 30 AS532UL Cougar; 50+ S-70A Black Hawk; Light 141: 12 Bell 204B (AB-204B); ε45 Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois); 64 Bell 205A (AB-205A); 20 Bell 206 Jet Ranger

UAVISR Heavy Falcon 600/Firebee; Medium CL-89; Gnat; Light Harpy

AD

SAM

SP 148: 70 Altigan PMADS octuple Stinger lnchr, 78 Zipkin PMADS quad Stinger lnchr

MANPAD 935: 789 FIM-43 Redeye (being withdrawn); 146 FIM-92A Stinger

GUNS 1,664

SP 40mm 262 M42A1

TOWED 1,402: 20mm 439 GAI-D01; 35mm 120 GDF-001/GDF-003; 40mm 843: 803 L/60/L/70; 40 T-1

RADARLAND AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder

AEV 12+: 12 M48; M113A2T2

ARV 150: 12 Leopard 1; 105 M48T5; 33 M88A2

VLB 52 Mobile Floating Assault Bridge

MW Tamkar

Navy 14,100; 34,500 conscript (total 48,600 including 2,200 Coast Guard and 3,100 Marines)

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINESTACTICALSSK 14:

6 Atilay (GER Type-209/1200) with 8 single 533mm ASTT with SST-4 HWT

8 Preveze/Gür (GER Type-209/1400) with 8 single 533mm ASTT with UGM-84 Harpoon AShM/Tigerfish Mk2 HWT

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 19

FRIGATESFFGHM 19:

2 Barbaros (mod GER MEKO 200 F244 & F245) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 lnchr with Aspide SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 3 Sea Zenith CIWS, 1 127mm gun, (capacity: 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

2 Barbaros (mod GER MEKO 200 F246 & F247) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 8-cell Mk41 VLS with Aspide SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 3 Sea Zenith CIWS, 1 127mm gun (capacity: 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

3 Gaziantep (ex-US Oliver Hazard Perry-class) with 1 Mk13 GMLS with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM/SM-1MR SAM, 1 8-cell Mk41 VLS with RIM-162 SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity: 1 S-70B Seahawk ASW hel)

5 Gaziantep (ex-US Oliver Hazard Perry-class) with 1 Mk13 GMLS with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM/SM-1MR SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 1 76mm gun, (capacity: 1 S-70B Seahawk ASW hel)

1 Muavenet (ex-US Knox-class) with 1 octuple Mk16 lnchr with ASROC/RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 127mm gun, (capacity: 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) utl hel)

4 Yavuz (GER MEKO 200TN) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 octuple Mk29 GMLS with Aspide SAM, 2 Mk32 triple 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 3 Sea Zenith CIWS, 1 127mm gun, (capacity: 1 Bell 212 (AB-212) hel)

2 Ada with 2 quad lnchr with RCM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 Mk49 21-cell lnchr with RIM-116 SAM, 2 Mk32 twin 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 76mm gun, (capacity: 1 S-70B Seahawk hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 60

CORVETTESFSGM 6:

6 Burak (FRA d’Estienne d’Orves) with 2 single lnchr with MM-38 Exocet AShM, 4 single 324mm ASTT with Mk46 LWT, 1 Mk54 A/S mor, 1 100mm gun

PCFG 19:

8 Dogan (GER Lurssen-57) with 2 quad lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 76mm gun

9 Kilic with 2 quad Mk 141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 76mm gun

2 Yildiz with 2 quad lnchr with RGM-84A/C Harpoon AShM, 1 76mm gun

PCC 13: 6 Tuzla; 6 Karamursel (GER Vegesack); 1 Trabzon;

PBFG 8 Kartal (GER Jaguar) with 4 single lnchr with RB 12 Penguin AShM, 2 single 533mm TT

PBF 4: 2 Kaan 20; 2 MRTP22

PB 10:

4 PGM-71 with 1 Mk22 Mousetrap A/S mor

6 Turk with 1 Mk20 Mousetrap A/S mor

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 28:

MCM SPT 8 (tenders)

MHO 11: 5 Edineik (FRA Circe); 6 Aydin

MSC 5 Silifke (US Adjutant)

MSI 4 Foca (US Cape)

AMPHIBIOUS

LANDING SHIPSLST 5:

2 Ertugrul (US Terrebonne Parish) with 3 76mm gun, (capacity 18 tanks; 400 troops) (with 1 hel landing platform)

1 Osman Gazi with 1 Phalanx CIWS, (capacity 4 LCVP; 17 tanks; 980 troops) (with 1 hel landing platform)

2 Sarucabey with 1 Phalanx CIWS, (capacity 11 tanks; 600 troops) (with 1 hel landing platform)

LANDING CRAFT 49

LCT 33: 8 C-151; 12 C-117; 13 C-130

LCM 16 C-302

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 79

ABU 2: 1 AG5; 1 AG6 with 1 76mm gun

AGS 3: 2 Cesme (US Silas Bent); 1 Cubuklu

AKL 1 Eregli

AOR 2 Akar with 1 twin 76mm gun, 1 Phalanx CIWS, 1 hel landing platform

AORL 1 Taskizak

AOT 2 Burak

AOL 1 Gurcan

AO 4 (harbour)

AP 1 Iskenderun

ARS 1 Isin

ASR 1 Akin

ATA 1 Tenace

ATR 1 Inebolu

ATS 3: 1 Akbas; 1 Gazal; 1 Darica

AWT 9: 5; 4 (harbour)

AXL 8

AX 2 Pasa (GER Rhein)

YAG 2 Mesaha

YFD 13

YPB 2

YPT 3

YTM 16

   Marines 3,100
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

1 mne bde (3 mne bn; 1 arty bn)

   Naval Aviation
   FORCES BY ROLE

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE

2 sqn with Bell 212 ASW (AB-212 ASW); S-70B Seahawk

1 sqn with ATR-72-600; CN-235M-100; TB-20 Trinidad

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT

MP 4 CN-235M-100 (2 more on order)

TPT Light 6: 1 ATR-72-600; 5 TB-20 Trinidad

HELICOPTERS

ASW 29: 11 Bell 212 ASW (AB-212 ASW); 18 S-70B Seahawk

Air Force 60,000

2 tac air forces (divided between east and west)

Flying hours 180 hrs/year

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

1 sqn with F-4E Phantom II

2 sqn with F-16C/D Fighting Falcon

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

2 sqn with F-4E Phantom II

8 sqn with F-16C/D Fighting Falcon

ISR

2 sqn with RF-4E/ETM Phantom II

1 unit with King Air 350

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL

1 sqn (forming) with B-737 AEW&C

EW

1 unit with CN-235M EW

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn with AS532AL/UL Cougar

TANKER

1 sqn with KC-135R Stratotanker

TRANSPORT

1 sqn with C-130B/E/H Hercules

1 sqn with C-160D Transall

1 (VIP) sqn with Cessna 550 Citation II (UC-35); Cessna 650 Citation VII; CN-235M; Gulfstream 550

3 sqn with CN-235M

10 (liaison) flt with Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois); CN-235M

TRAINING

1 sqn with F-4E Phantom II; F-16C/D Fighting Falcon

1 sqn with F-5A/B Freedom Fighter; NF-5A/B Freedom Fighter

1 OCU sqn with F-16C/D Fighting Falcon

1 sqn with SF-260D

1 sqn with KT-IT

1 sqn with T-38A/M Talon

1 sqn with T-41D Mescalero

AIR DEFENCE

4 sqn with MIM-14 Nike Hercules

2 sqn with Rapier

8 (firing) unit with MIM-23 HAWK

MANOEUVRE

Air Manoeuvre

1 AB bde

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 352 combat capable

FTR 53: 18 F-5A Freedom Fighter; 8 F-5B Freedom Fighter; 17 NF-5A Freedom Fighter; 10 NF-5B Freedom Fighter (48 F-5s being upgraded as LIFT)

FGA 299: 69 F-4E Phantom II (52 upgraded to Phantom 2020); 212 F-16C/D Fighting Falcon (all being upgraded to Block 50 standard); 9 F-16C Block 50 Fighting Falcon; 9 F-16D Block 50 Fighting Falcon

ISR 38: 33 RF-4E/ETM Phantom II; 5 Beech 350 King Air

EW 2+ CN-235M EW

AEW&C 1 B-737 AEW&C (3 more on order)

TKR 7 KC-135R Stratotanker

TPT 86 Medium 35: 6 C-130B Hercules; 12 C-130E Hercules; 1 C-130H Hercules; 16 C-160D Transall; Light 50: 2 Cessna 550 Citation II (UC-35 - VIP); 2 Cessna 650 Citation VII; 46 CN-235M; PAX 1 Gulfstream 550

TRG 172: 34 SF-260D; 70 T-38A/M Talon; 28 T-41D Mescalero; 40 KT-IT

HELICOPTERS

TPT 40 Medium 20: 6 AS532AL Cougar (CSAR); 14 AS532UL Cougar (SAR); Light 20 Bell 205 (UH-1H Iroquois)

UAV ISR 28: Heavy 10 Heron; Medium 18 Gnat 750

AD

SAM Rapier

TOWED: MIM-23 HAWK

STATIC MIM-14 Nike Hercules

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9S Sidewinder; Shafrir 2(‡); SARH AIM-7E Sparrow; ARH AIM-120A/B AMRAAM

ARM AGM-88A HARM

ASM AGM-65A/G Maverick; Popeye I

BOMBS

Conventional BLU-107;

Electro-optical guided GBU-8B HOBOS (GBU-15)

Laser-guided Paveway I; Paveway II

PODS

Infrared 80: 40 AN/AAQ-14 LANTIRN; 40 AN/AAQ-13 LANTIRN

Paramilitary

   Gendarmerie/National Guard 100,000; 50,000 reservists (total 150,000)

Ministry of Interior; Ministry of Defence in war

   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 cdo bde

MANOEUVRE

Other

1 (border) paramilitary div

2 paramilitary bde

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

RECCE Akrep

APC (W) 560: 535 BTR-60/BTR-80; 25 Condor

AIRCRAFT

ISR Some O-1E Bird Dog

TPTLight 2 Do-28D

HELICOPTERS

MRH 19 Mi-17 Hip H

TPT 36: Medium 13 S-70A Black Hawk; Light 23: 8 Bell 204B (AB-204B); 6 Bell 205A (AB-205A); 8 Bell 206A (AB-206A) Jet Ranger; 1 Bell 212 (AB-212)

   Coast Guard 800 (Coast Guard Regular element); 1,050 (from Navy); 1,400 conscript (total 3,250)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 106

PSOH 2 Dost with 1 76mm gun (2 further vessels in build; expected ISD 2014/15)

PBF 47

PB 57

AIRCRAFT MP 1 CN-235 MPA (2 more to be delivered)

HELICOPTERS MRH 8 Bell 412EP (AB-412EP – SAR)

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Codified constitution (1985)

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: a) In general, by parliament (Art. 92); b) in cases of sudden aggression and if parliament is unable to convene, by president (Art. 92, 104b)

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 1,036; 1 inf bde HQ; 1 inf bn

UN • UNAMA 1 obs

Arabian Sea & Gulf of Aden

Combined Maritime Forces • CTF-151: 1 FFGHM

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 229; 1 inf coy

Cyprus (Northern)

ε43,000; 1 army corps HQ; 1 armd bde; 2 mech inf div; 1 avn comd; 8 M48A2 (trg;) 340 M48A5T1/T2; 361 AAPC (incl variants); 266 M113 (incl variants); 72 M101A1; 18 M114A2; 12 M115; 90 M-44T; 6 T-122; 175 81mm mor; 148 M-30; 127 HY-12; 66 Milan; 48 TOW; 192 M40A1; Rh 202; 16 GDF-003; 48 M1; 3 Cessna 185 (U-17); 1 AS532UL Cougar; 3 UH-1H Iroquois; 1 PB

Lebanon

UN • UNIFIL 190; 1 FFGHM

Mediterranean Sea

NATO • SNMG 2: 1 FFGHM

NATO • SNMCMG 2: 1 MHO

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 367; 1 inf coy

OSCE • Kosovo 7

UN • UNMIK 1 obs

FOREIGN FORCES

Germany Active Fence: 2 bty with Patriot PAC-3

Netherlands Active Fence: 2 bty with MIM-104 Patriot

United States US European Command: 1,500; 4 MQ-1B Predator UAV at Incirlik; 1 spt facility at Izmir; 1 spt facility at Ankara; 1 air base at Incirlik• US Strategic Command: 1 Spacetrack Radar at Incirlik; 1 AN/TPY-2 X-band radar at Kürecik • Active Fence: 2 bty with MIM-104 Patriot

United Kingdom

United Kingdom UK
British Pound £ 2012 2013 2014
GDP £ 1.58tr 1.64tr
US$ 2.44tr 2.42tr
per capita US$ 38,589 38,002
Growth % 0.17 0.69
Inflation % 2.84 2.65
Def bdgt a £ 38.7bn 37.1bn
US$ 61.3bn 57bn
US$1=£ 0.63 0.65
a Net Cash Requirement figures. These will differ from official figures based on Resource Accounting & Budgeting. Excludes military pensions covered by the Armed Forces Pension Scheme (AFPS) and the Armed Forces Compensation Scheme (AFCS).
Population 63,395,574
Age 0–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–64 65 plus
Male 8.9% 3.1% 3.5% 3.5% 23.0% 7.7%
Female 8.4% 2.9% 3.3% 3.4% 22.6% 9.6%

Capabilities

The UK remains, along with France, Europe’s pre-eminent military force, though a mix of over-ambition, under-funding, and defence reviews have reduced the scale of the country’s ability to project and sustain combat power. The 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review was aimed at providing a balanced and affordable path to Future Force 2020, though whether this remains achievable will only become apparent following SDSR 2015. The ground force’s Army 2020 review, published in 2013, detailed a cut of 20,000 regular troops by 2017, with an increasing dependence on reservists. A two-tier army structure provides a Reaction Force and an Adaptable Force, with the former providing units at high readiness. The navy received the last of its six Type-45 destroyers in September 2013, while the air force continued to receive Voyager tanker/transport aircraft based on the A330 as the replacement for the VC10 and Tristar. (See pp. 69–71.)

ACTIVE 169,150 (Army 99,800 Navy 33,350 Air 36,000)

RESERVE 79,100 (Regular Reserve ε51,000 (incl 4,850 RAF); Volunteer Reserve 28,100 (Army 24,100; Navy 2,650; Air 1,350)

Includes both trained and those currently under training within the Regular Forces, excluding university cadet units.

ORGANISATIONS BY SERVICE

Strategic Forces 1,000

   Armed Forces

RADARSTRATEGIC 1 Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) at Fylingdales Moor

   Royal Navy

SUBMARINESSTRATEGICSSBN 4:

4 Vanguard with 4 533mm TT with Spearfish HWT, up to 16 UGM-133A Trident D-5 SLBM (Each boat will not deploy with more than 48 warheads, but each missile could carry up to 12 MIRV, some Trident D-5 capable of being configured for sub-strategic role)

MSLSTRATEGIC 48 SLBM (Fewer than 160 declared operational warheads)

Space

SATELLITESCOMMUNICATIONS 7: 1 NATO-4B; 3 Skynet-4; 3 Skynet-5

Army 96,600; 3,200 Gurkhas (total: 99,800)

Regt normally bn size

FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

1 (ARRC) corps HQ (1 sigs bde)

MANOEUVRE

Armoured

1 (1st) armd div (1 (7th) armd bde (1 armd recce regt, 1 armd regt, 1 armd inf bn, 2 inf bn, 1 sigs sqn); 1 (20th) armd bde (1 armd recce regt, 1 armd regt, 1 armd inf bn, 3 inf bn); 1 cbt spt gp (2 SP arty regt, 1 AD regt, 2 cbt engr regt, 1 ptn br regt, 1 MP regt, 2 log regt, 2 maint regt, 2 med regt); 1 sigs regt)

Mechanised

1 (3rd) mech div (1 (1st) mech bde (1 armd recce regt, 1 armd regt, 1 armd inf bn, 3 inf bn, 1 sigs sqn); 1 (4th) mech bde (1 armd recce regt, 1 armd regt, 1 armd inf bn,, 4 inf bn, 1 (Gurkha) lt inf bn, 1 sigs sqn); 1 (12th) mech bde (1 armd regt, 1 recce regt, 1 armd inf bn, 4 lt inf bn, 1 sigs sqn); 1 cbt spt gp (1 armd regt, 2 SP arty regt, 1 arty regt, 3 cbt engr regt, 1 MP regt, 3 log regt, 3 maint regt, 3 med regt); 1 sigs regt)

Light

5 lt inf bn (3 in London, 2 in Cyprus); 1 (Gurkha) lt inf bn (Brunei)

Other

1 trg BG (based on 1 armd inf bn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 arty bde (2 UAV regt, 1 STA regt, 1 MRL regt)

1 (opcon RAF) AD bde (1 AD regt)

1 engr bde (3 EOD regt, 1 engr regt, 1 air spt regt)

1 int bde (3 int regt)

1 sigs bde (1 EW regt, 5 sigs regt)

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

3 log bde (total: 1 MP regt, 5 log regt, 1 maint reg)

1 med bde (3 bn)

   Home Service Forces • Gibraltar 200 reservists; 150 active reservists (total 350)
 
   Reserves
   Territorial Army 24,100 reservists

The Territorial Army generates individuals, sub-units and some full units.

   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Reconnaissance

2 recce regt

Armoured

2 armd regt

Light

13 lt inf bn

Air Manoeuvre

1 para bn

Aviation

1 UAV regt

COMBAT SUPPORT

3 arty regt

1 STA regt

1 MRL regt

1 AD regt

5 engr regt;

3 engr sqn

3 EOD sqn

5 sigs regt

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

14 log regt

2 maint regt

3 med regt

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

MBT 227 Challenger 2

RECCE 640: 200 Jackal; 110 Jackal 2; 130 Jackal 2A; 200 Scimitar; (8 Tpz-1 Fuchs in store)

AIFV 350 Warrior

APC 2,305

APC (T) 1,260: 880 Bulldog Mk3; 275 FV103 Spartan; 105 Warthog

PPV 1,045: 330 Foxhound; 420 Mastiff (6×6); 170 Ridgback; 125 Wolfhound (6×6)

ARTY 610

SP 155mm 89 AS90 Braveheart

TOWED 105mm 126 L118 Light gun

MRL 227mm 35 M270 MLRS

MOR 81mm 360

ATMSL

SP ε14 Exactor (Spike NLOS)

MANPATS Javelin

ADSAM

SP 60 FV4333 Stormer

TOWED 14 Rapier FSC

MANPAD 24 Starstreak (LML)

AEV 57: 24 Terrier; 33 Trojan

ARV 155: 80 CRARRV; 35 Samson; 40 Warrior ARRV

MW 94: 64 Aardvark; 30 M139

VLB 71: 38 M3; 33 Titan

RADARLAND 144: 5 Mamba; 139 MSTAR

UAVISRMedium 8 Hermes 450; (Watchkeeper in test – ISD delayed)

AMPHIBIOUS 6 LCVP

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 5 RCL

Royal Navy 33,350

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

SUBMARINES 11

STRATEGICSSBN 4:

4 Vanguard, opcon Strategic Forces with up to 16 UGM-133A Trident D-5 SLBM, 4 single 533mm TT each with Spearfish HWT, (each boat will not deploy with more than 40 warheads, but each missile could carry up to 12 MIRV; some Trident D-5 capable of being configured for sub strategic role)

TACTICALSSN 7:

5 Trafalgar with 5 single 533mm TT with Spearfish HWT/Tomahawk tactical LACM/UGM 84 Harpoon AShM

2 Astute with 6 single 533mm TT with Spearfish HWT/UGM-84 Harpoon AShM/Tomahawk tactical LACM (4 additional vessels in build; 1 additional vessel on order)

PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS 19

DESTROYERSDDHM 6:

6 Daring (Type-45) with 1 48-cell VLS with Sea Viper SAM, 2 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, 1 114mm gun, (capacity 1 Lynx/AW101 Merlin hel)

FRIGATESFFGHM 13:

13 Norfolk (Type-23) with 2 quad Mk141 lnchr with RGM-84C Harpoon AShM, 1 32-cell VLS with Sea Wolf SAM, 2 twin 324mm ASTT with Sting Ray LWT, 1 114mm gun, (capacity either 2 Lynx or 1 AW101 Merlin hel)

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS 22

PSO 4: 3 River; 1 River (mod) with 1 hel landing platform

PB 18: 16 Archer (trg); 2 Scimitar

MINE WARFAREMINE COUNTERMEASURES 16:

MCO 8 Hunt (incl 4 mod Hunt)

MHC 8 Sandown (1 decommissioned and used in trg role)

AMPHIBIOUS

PRINCIPAL AMPHIBIOUS SHIPS 4:

LPD 2 Albion with 2 Goalkeeper CIWS, (capacity 2 med hel; 4 LCVP; 6 MBT; 300 troops) (1 at extended readiness)

LPH 2:

1 Ocean with 3 Phalanx Block 1B CIWS, (capacity 18 hel; 4 LCU or 2 LCAC; 4 LCVP; 800 troops)

1 Invincible with 3 Goalkeeper CIWS, (capacity 22 hel; 600 troops) (to decommission 2014)

LANDING CRAFT 37: 10 LCU; 23 LCVP; 4 LCAC

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 10

AGB 1 Protector with 1 hel landing platform

AGS 3: 1 Scott; 2 Echo (all with 1 hel landing platform)

YGS 6: 1 Gleaner; 5 Nesbitt

   Royal Fleet Auxiliary

Support and Miscellaneous vessels are mostly manned and maintained by the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA), a civilian fleet owned by the UK MoD, which has approximately 2,500 personnel with type comd under CINCFLEET.

AMPHIBIOUS PRINCIPAL AMPHIBIOUS SHIPS 3

LSD 3 Bay (capacity 4 LCU; 2 LCVP; 24 CR2 Challenger 2 MBT; 350 troops)

LOGISTICS AND SUPPORT 16

AORH 3: 2 Wave; 1 Fort Victoria

AOR 1 Leaf

AORLH 2 Rover

AFSH 2 Fort Rosalie

ARH 1 Diligence

AG 1 Argus (aviation trg ship with secondary role as primarily casualty receiving ship)

AKR 6 Point (not RFA manned)

   Naval Aviation (Fleet Air Arm) 5,500
   FORCES BY ROLE

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE

3 sqn with AW101 ASW Merlin (HM1)

1 sqn with Lynx HAS3/HMA8

1 flt with Lynx HAS3

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING

3 sqn with Sea King AEW7

SEARCH & RESCUE

1 sqn (and detached flt) with Sea King HU5

TRAINING


1 sqn with Beech 350ER King Air

1 sqn with G-115 (op under contract)

1 sqn with Hawk T1

1 OCU sqn with AW101 ASW Merlin (HM1)

1 sqn with Lynx HAS3

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 12 combat capable

TPTLight 4 Beech 350ER King Air

TRG 17: 5 G-115 (op under contract); 12 Hawk T1*

HELICOPTERS

ASW 92: 4 AW159 Wildcat HMA2; 13 Lynx HAS3; 33 Lynx HMA8; 42 AW101 ASW Merlin (HM1/2)

AEW 13 Sea King AEW Mk7

TPT Medium 16 Sea King HU Mk5

MSLAShM Sea Skua

   Royal Marines 6,850
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Amphibious

1 (3rd Cdo) mne bde (1 ISTAR gp (1 EW sqn; 1 cbt spt sqn; 1 sigs sqn; 1 log sqn), 3 cdo bn; 1 amph aslt sqn; 1 (army) arty regt; 1 (army) engr regt; 1 log regt)

3 landing craft sqn opcon Royal Navy

Other

1 (Fleet Protection) sy gp

   EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

APC (T) 142: 118 BvS-10 Viking; 24 BvS-10 Mk2 Viking

ARTY 50

TOWED 105mm 18 L-118

MOR 81mm 32

AT MSL MANPATS Javelin

AMPHIBIOUS LANDING CRAFT LCAC 4 Griffon 2400TD

ADSAM • HVM

RADARLAND 4 MAMBA (Arthur)

   Royal Marines Reserve 600
 

Royal Air Force 36,000

Flying hours 210/yr on fast jets; 290 on tpt ac; 240 on support hels; 90 on Sea King

FORCES BY ROLE

FIGHTER

2 sqn with Typhoon FGR4/T3

FIGHTER/GROUND ATTACK

5 sqn with Tornado GR4/4A

2 sqn with Typhoon FGR4/T3

ISR

1 sqn with Sentinel R1

1 sqn with Shadow R1

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING & CONTROL

1 sqn with E-3D Sentry

SEARCH & RESCUE

2 sqn with Sea King HAR-3A

1 sqn with Bell 412EP Griffin HAR-2

TANKER/TRANSPORT

2 sqn with A330 MRTT Voyager KC2/3

1 sqn with Tristar C2/C2A/K1/KC1

TRANSPORT

1 (comms) sqn with AS355 Squirrel; AW109E; BAe-125; BAe-146; BN-2A Islander CC2

1 sqn with C-17A Globemaster

3 sqn with C-130J/J-30 Hercules

TRAINING

1 OCU sqn with Tornado

1 OCU sqn with Typhoon

1 OEU sqn with Typhoon, Tornado

1 OCU sqn with E-3D Sentry; Sentinel R1

1 OEU sqn with E-3D Sentry; Sentinel R1

1 OCU sqn with Sea King HAR-3A

1 sqn with Beech 200 King Air

1 sqn with EMB-312 Tucano (T Mk1)

3 sqn with Hawk T Mk1/1A/1W; Hawk T2

3 sqn with Tutor

1 hel sqn with Bell 412EP Griffin HT1

COMBAT/ISR UAV

2 sqn with MQ-9 Reaper

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFT 283 combat capable

FGA 223: 3 F-35B Lightning II (in test); 112 Tornado GR4/GR4A; 108 Typhoon FGR4/T3

ISR 11: 5 Sentinel R1 (Option to be withdrawn from role post-Afghanistan); 6 Shadow R1

ELINT 1 RC-135V Rivet Joint (IOC 2014)

AEW&C 6 E-3D Sentry

TKR/TPT 11: 6 A330 MRTT Voyager KC2/3; 1 Tristar K1; 4 Tristar KC1

TPT 59: Heavy 8 C-17A Globemaster; Medium 24: 10 C-130J Hercules; 14 C-130J-30 Hercules; Light 14: 8 Beech 200 King Air (on lease); 3 Beech 200GT King Air (on lease); 3 BN-2A Islander CC2; PAX 13: 6 BAe-125 CC-3; 4 BAe-146 CC2/C3; 2 Tristar C2; 1 Tristar C2A

TRG 290: 91 EMB-312 Tucano T1; 101 G-115E Tutor; 28 Hawk T2*; 32 Hawk T1/1A/1W* (ε40 more in store); 38 T67M/M260 Firefly

HELICOPTERS

MRH 5: 1 AW139; 4 Bell 412EP Griffin HAR-2

TPT 28 Medium 25 Sea King HAR-3A; Light 3 AW109E

UAVCISRHeavy 10 MQ-9 Reaper

MSL

AAMIR AIM-9L/9L/I Sidewinder; IIR ASRAAM; ARH AIM-120B/C5 AMRAAM

ARM ALARM

ASM Brimstone; Dual-Mode Brimstone; AGM-65G2 Maverick

LACM Storm Shadow

BOMBS

Laser-Guided/GPS: Paveway II; GBU-10 Paveway III; Enhanced Paveway II/III; GBU-24 Paveway IV

   Royal Air Force Regiment
   FORCES BY ROLE

COMMAND

3 (tactical Survive To Operate (STO)) sqn

MANOEUVRE

Other

7 sy sqn

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 CBRN sqn

   Tri-Service Defence Helicopter School

HELICOPTERS

MRH 11 Bell 412EP Griffin HT1

TPT Light 27: 25 AS350B Ecureuil; 2 AW109E

   Volunteer Reserve Air Forces

(Royal Auxiliary Air Force/RAF Reserve)

MANOEUVRE

Other

5 sy sqn

COMBAT SUPPORT

2 int sqn

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

1 med sqn

1 (air movements) sqn

1 (HQ augmentation) sqn

1 (C-130 Reserve Aircrew) flt

Joint Helicopter Command

Includes Army, Royal Navy and RAF units

   Army
   FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Air Manoeuvre

1 (16th) air aslt bde (1 recce pl, 2 para bn, 1 air aslt bn, 2 atk hel regt (3 sqn with AH-64D Apache), 1 hel regt (3 sqn with Lynx AH7/9A), 1 arty regt, 1 engr regt, 1 MP coy, 1 log regt, 1 med regt)

Aviation

1 avn regt (1 sqn with BN-2 Defender/Islander; 1 sqn with SA341 Gazelle)

1 hel regt (2 sqn with Lynx AH7/9A)

1 hel sqn with Lynx AH7//9A

1 (test) hel sqn with Lynx AH7/9A

1 trg hel regt (1 sqn with AH-64D Apache; 1 sqn with AS350B Ecureuil; 1 sqn with Bell 212; Lynx AH7; SA341 Gazelle)

1 hel flt with AS365N3; SA341 Gazelle

1 hel flt with Bell 212 (Brunei)

1 hel flt with SA341 Gazelle (Canada)

      Territorial Army
      FORCES BY ROLE

MANOEUVRE

Aviation

1 hel regt

   Royal Navy
   FORCES BY ROLE

ATTACK HELICOPTER

1 lt sqn with Lynx AH9A

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

2 sqn with Sea King HC4

TRAINING

1 hel sqn with Sea King HC4

   Royal Air Force
   FORCES BY ROLE

TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

3 hel sqn with CH-47D/SD Chinook

2 hel sqn with AW101 Merlin

2 hel sqn with SA330 Puma

EQUIPMENT BY TYPE

AIRCRAFTTPT Light 15: 9 BN-2T-4S Defender; 6 BN-2 Islander

HELICOPTERS

ATK 66 AH-64D Apache

MRH 110 : 5 AS365N3; 22 AW159 Wildcat AH1; 27 Lynx AH7; 22 Lynx AH9A; 34 SA341 Gazelle

TPT 152: Heavy 46: 32 CH-47D Chinook (HC2/4); 6 CH-47D Chinook (HC2A); 8 CH-47SD Chinook (HC3); Medium 89: 28 AW101 Merlin (HC3/3A); 24 SA330 Puma (HC1) (being upgraded to HC2 standard); 37 Sea King (HC4); Light 17: 9 AS350B Ecureuil; 8 Bell 212

UK Special Forces

Includes Army, Royal Navy and RAF units

FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

1 (SAS) SF regt

1 (SBS) SF regt

1 (Special Reconnaissance) SF regt

1 SF BG (based on 1 para bn)

MANOEUVRE

Aviation

1 wg (includes assets drawn from 2 army avn sqn, 1 army hel flt, 1 RAF tpt sqn and 1 RAF hel sqn)

COMBAT SUPPORT

1 sigs regt

   Reserve
   FORCES BY ROLE

SPECIAL FORCES

2 (SAS) SF regt

Cyber

The Office of Cyber Security & Information Assurance works with the Cyber Security Operations Centre and ministries and agencies to implement cyber-security programmes. CSOC is hosted by GCHQ. The 2010 SDSR said that the country would ‘establish a transformative national programme to protect ourselves in cyber space’. This ‘National Cyber Security Programme’ is supported by some £650m – with programme management by OSCIA – and led to a new Cyber Security Strategy, published in November 2011. A UK Defence Cyber Operations Group was set up in 2011 to place ‘cyber at the heart of defence operations, doctrine and training’. This group was transferred to Joint Forces Command on this formation’s establishment in April 2012. In 2013, it was announced that a new Joint Cyber Reserve Unit would be developed.

DEPLOYMENT

Legal provisions for foreign deployment:

Constitution: Uncodified constitution which includes constitutional statutes, case law, international treaties and unwritten conventions

Decision on deployment of troops abroad: By the government

Afghanistan

NATO • ISAF 7,700; 1 (7th) armd bde (1 recce regt, 1 armd regt, 4 inf bn, 1 arty regt; 1 engr regt); AH-64D Apache; Lynx AH9A; Hermes 450; Tornado GR4/GR4A; C-130J Hercules; CH-47D Chinook; Shadow R1; MQ-9 Reaper

Arabian Sea & Gulf of Aden

Combined Maritime Forces • CTF-150: 1 FFGHM

Armenia/Azerbaijan

OSCE • Minsk Conference 1

Ascension Island

Air Force 20

Atlantic (North)/Caribbean

1 FFGHM

Atlantic (South)

1 FFGHM

Bahrain

20; 1 BAe-125; 1 BAe-146

Belize

10

Bosnia-Herzegovina

EU • EUFOR • Operation Althea 4

OSCE • Bosnia and Herzegovina 5

British Indian Ocean Territory

40; 1 Navy/Marine det

Brunei

550; 1 (Gurkha) lt inf bn; 1 jungle trg centre; 1 hel flt with 3 Bell 212

Canada

420; 2 trg units; 1 hel flt with SA341 Gazelle

Cyprus

2,600; 2 inf bn; 1 SAR sqn with 4 Bell 412 Twin Huey; 1 radar (on det)

UN • UNFICYP 337; 1 inf coy

Democratic Republic of the Congo

EU • EUSEC RD Congo 3

UN • MONUSCO 6 obs

Falkland Islands

1,500; 1 inf coy(+); 1 AD det with Rapier; 1 PSO; 1 ftr flt with 4 Typhoon FGR4; 1 SAR sqn with Sea King HAR-3/3A; 1 tkr/tpt flt with C-130J Hercules

Germany

16,500; 1 armd div with (2 armd bde)

Gibraltar

410 (incl 175 pers of Gibraltar regt); 2 PB

Gulf of Aden & Indian Ocean

EU Operation Atalanta 1 LSD

Kenya

170 (trg team)

Kuwait

30 (trg team)

Mali

EU • EUTM Mali 40

UN • MINUSMA 2

Mediterranean Sea

NATO • SNMCMG 2: 1 MHC

Moldova

OSCE • Moldova 1

Nepal

280 (Gurkha trg org)

Netherlands

90

Oman

70; 1 Sentinel; 1 Tristar tkr

Persian Gulf

Combined Maritime Forces • CTF-152: 1 FFGHM; 2 MCO; 2 MHC

Qatar

4 C-130J

Serbia

NATO • KFOR 1

OSCE • Kosovo 13

OSCE • Serbia 5

South Sudan

UN • UNMISS 2

Uganda

EU • EUTM Somalia 2

United States

480

FOREIGN FORCES

United States

US European Command: 9,300; 1 ftr wg at RAF Lakenheath with (1 ftr sqn with 24 F-15C/D Eagle, 2 ftr sqn with 23 F-15E Strike Eagle); 1 ISR sqn at RAF Mildenhall with OC-135/RC-135; 1 tkr wg at RAF Mildenhall with 15 KC-135R Stratotanker; 1 Special Ops gp at RAF Mildenhall with (1 sqn with 5 MC-130H Combat Talon II; 5 CV-22B Osprey; 1 sqn with 1 MC-130J Commando II; 4 MC-130P Combat Shadow) US Strategic Command: 1 Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) at Fylingdales Moor; 1 Spacetrack radar at Fylingdales Moor

Table 3 Selected Arms Procurements and Deliveries, Europe
Designation Type Quantity (Current) Contract Value Prime Nationality Prime Contractor Order Date First Delivery Due Notes
Belgium (BEL)
Piranha IIIC APC (W) 242 €700m (US$844m) US General Dynamics (MOWAG) 2006 2010 Delivery in progress. Option on further 104
A400M Atlas Tpt ac 7 n.k. Int’l EADS (Airbus) 2003 2018 Five flight test aircraft now in programme. Belgium is now likely to take delivery of its aircraft 2018–19
NH90 NFH/TTH ASW/Tpt hel 8 €293m (US$400m) Int’l NH Industries 2007 2012 Four TTH, four NFH. First NH90 TTH delivered Dec 2012; first NFH delivered mid-2013; option on two more NH90 TTH
Denmark (DNK)
Iver Huitfeldt-class DDG 3 DKK4.3bn (US$471m) DNK Odense Staalskibsværft 2006 2012 Projekt Patruljeskib. First vessel commissioned Feb 2012. Second launched Dec 2010; third laid down Dec 2009
MH-60R Seahawk ASW hel 9 DKK4bn (US$686m) US UTC (Sikorsky) 2012 2016 To replace Lynx. First delivery due mid-2016
Estonia (EST)
XA-188 APC (W) 80 €2