Adelphi Books

Western readers of the morning’s headlines in 2014 realised to their surprise and dismay that post-Cold War Europe was at war. The local conflagrations triggered by the break-up of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in the 1990s were bloodier, but the Ukraine crisis occurred long afterwards and revived fears of a clash between major world powers. The United States and the member states of the European Union (EU) adopted positions diametrically opposed to those followed by post-Soviet Russia. Ukraine and its people were caught in between. Today, Europe is divided once again, although the divisions lie farther east than they did before the fall of the Berlin Wall. These new demarcation lines are unstable and reflect neither local affinities nor great-power consensus. There is talk in world capitals of a new cold war, a protracted period of tensions when destabilising and even catastrophic conflict is an ever-present danger. The troubles in Ukraine began as an essentially internal affair. In November 2013 a crackdown on students demonstrating against the government’s decision not to sign an agreement to link the country more closely with the EU led to a mammoth street protest in the capital city, Kyiv. Several months of clashes between the authorities and the protesters produced, unexpectedly for all, the violent overthrow in February 2014 of a harsh and erratic but democratically elected president, Viktor Yanukovych, in what came to be known as the Maidan Revolution. The domestic imbroglio blew up into an international confrontation in March when Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered measures taken to occupy and then annex the Crimean peninsula, situated on Ukraine’s Black Sea coast. While the Crimea operation produced few casualties, thousands have died since Moscow supported unrest in the Donbas area of eastern Ukraine, along the land border with Russia. Consisting of the provinces of Donetsk (pre-conflict population 4.4 million) and Luhansk (2.2m), the Donbas hosted a high concentration of the country’s mining and metallurgy and was the political base of Yanukovych and his Party of Regions. Separatist ‘people’s republics’, with material and moral support from Russia, were declared in both pieces of the Donbas in April 2014. A Ukrainian military operation to quell the rebellion began that spring and within months had forced a rebel retreat. Late that summer, regular Russian units – far better equipped and trained than their Donbas separatist comrades – intervened directly. The resulting setback for Ukrainian forces produced negotiations that led to a ceasefire deal, signed in Minsk, Belarus, on 5 September. It broke down within weeks. A second and more robust pact was signed on 12 February 2015, again in Minsk, following another punishing Russian intervention. The crumbling of the first of the two Minsk agreements resulted in large part from the battle for control of the airport of the city of Donetsk, the provincial capital. This event serves as a powerful reminder of the destructive forces at work. Located ten kilometres northwest of central Donetsk, the facility was officially called Sergei Prokofiev International Airport, in honour...

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Online Access & Digital Download £100000.00