Apple in China

Rampant vulnerability across globalised information and communications technologies (ICT) has led to accelerating cybersecurity crises across domains of national security, economic stability, criminality and personal privacy. A foundation for deterrence by denial in cyberspace involves raising the standards of information assurance across the ICT sector in order to raise the cost and difficulty of undertaking cyber operations.

This talk examined unaddressed public goods dilemmas and the associated transfer of cyber risk downstream to customers that are the result of this state of affairs. It suggested policy options to shape business models, with phased incentives to relocate risk so that it can be handled by entities that control the technical architectures.


John C Mallery is a research affiliate at the MIT Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, where he has been since 1980. He is also an Oxford Martin School Associate and an affiliate of the ESMT Digital Society Institute in Berlin. Mallery has organised many Track 1.5 discussions on politico-military cyber norms, including a G7 conference on intellectual property protection in 2015, and dialogues with Chinese and Russian cyber experts on cyber threat reduction and military cyber stability. Between 2014 and 2016, he also served as co-director for a NATO Science for Peace and Security project with Jordan.

From the early 1990s, Mallery has advised governments on digital communications and cyber strategy, including serving as the principal architect on the White House Electronic Publications System during the Clinton administration, and working on Obama's cyber policy team during the 2008 presidential campaign.


This event was chaired by Nigel Inskter, Senior Adviser, IISS. It took place on Thursday 20 July in the Trafalgar Room at Arundel House, 13–15 Arundel Street, Temple Place, London WC2R 3DX.

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Event details

John C Mallery, research affiliate, MIT Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Associate, Oxford Martin School
Chaired by Nigel Inskter, Senior Adviser, IISS; formerly Director of Future Conflict and Cyber Security, IISS
Arundel House, London